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M. Čas: DISTURBANCESAND PREDATION AT CAPERCAILLIE LEK HABITATS IN ALPS ... Šumarski list br. 9–10, CXXXIV (2010), 487-495
On the base of comparable research of another pre da-experiment at two hunting districts at Koprivna and Bi
tor species (red fox), influencing to the roe deer
(Capreolus capreolus L.) population density with a negative
impact on population dynamics (Čas 2008) we
suggested that forest grouse species (capercaillie, black
grouse, hasel grouse Bonasa bonasia L.) to be under
strongest predator pressure too. Negative influences of
red fox, martens and wild boar population dynamics on
capercaillie population density was confirmed by results
of significant cyclically relations from hunting statistics
data in Slovenian lands since 1874 (Čas 2006). Confirmation
in this study (Table 1, 2) permits predator number
control (predator control) in these hunting association
areas as urgent wildlife management measure for sustainable
capercaillie (and roe deer) stabile populations
In past two years the suggestion of predator control
(Čas 2008) resulted in positive consequences in a pilot
stra valleys (104.3 km).This narrow study areas represented
optimal site for capercaillie habitats within a
larger area of Koroška (Carinthia) in northern Slovenia
(Peca – 2.126 m a.s.l. and Smrekovec – 1.684 m a.s.l.
mountain). Our solution of predator control through the
granting of hunters with one premium offspring roe deer
or chamois for each ten foxes or five martens shot in one
hunting season resulted in succesfull control with a total
of up to four times increased number of shot foxes or
martens per year.The increase of shot predators was most
pronounced in winter time when the population is in general
most vulnerable for density changes (Sandercock
2010) as it used to be in past times with a good
sale of fur from these predators.Now a higher density of
forest grouses and roe deer were observed in that area.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT – Zahvalnica
The text preparation were supported by the Forest
Biology, Ecology and Technology Research Programme
(P4-0107), financed by the Slovenian ResearchAgency
and V4 0175109 (1998-2000), V4-0492 (2008-2011)
and V4-0497 (2008-2010) research projects funded by
the Ministry ofAgriculture, Forestry and Food of the Republic
of Slovenia (RS), the Ministry for Science and
Technology of the RS, and the Ministry of the Environment
and Spatial Planning of the RS.Wethank to hunters
and foresters from the Slovenian Hunting Association
(SHA) and the Slovenian Forestry Service (SFS) for their
efforts at fieldwork on capercaillie birds counting and
leks observations. We would like to thank Prof. Miha
Adamič from Biotechnical faculty, Dep. of forestry in
Ljubljana and to Prof. Marijan Grubešić from Forestry
faculty in Zagreb for support in research, Dr. Primož
Kmecl and Cilka Zupančič and especially to Dr. Tine
Grebenc from the Slovenian Forestry Institute for fruitful
cooperation on this paper.
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