|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Tomić, F., T. Krička, S. Matić||UDK 630* 331 + 88 (001)||323|
|Available Agricultural Areas and the Use of Forests for Biofuel Production in Croatia|
|Summary: The production and expansion of biofuel use in the world and the EU has been prompted by economic and ecological reasons. Fossil fuel reserves (oil and gas) are being depleted and becoming more expensive. At the same time the Kyoto Protocol stipulates the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions with the goal of mitigating climatic phenomena which could cause unforeseen consequences.
Land for biomass production is limited: therefore, biofuels could, following the EU strategy, replace fossil fuels only in one part. In addition to developing other renewable energies (hydro energy, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy), the EU committed itself to replace traffic oil with biofuels by 25 % by the year 2030. As Croatia is an EU membership candidate, the first thing it is required to do is to fulfill the obligation of achieving a 5.75 % proportion of biofuels (104,034 tons), held by each member state, by the year 2010. This is followed by the fulfillment of the commitment for the year 2020 (180,930 tons) and by the year 2030 (452,325 tons).
Of the total continental land area of Croatia (5,662,031 ha), agricultural land covers 2,955,728 ha or 52.2 %.
In Croatia, 55.9% or 1,202,000 ha of a total of 2,150,000 ha of potentially arable land are cultivated. If pastures are excluded, then arable land amounts to only 50.8 % or 1,092,000 ha.
With the application of more or less intensive ameliorative measures, agrocultures could be cultivated for food production and partially for biofuel production over as many as 947.080 ha of available land in Croatia.
Permanently unsuitable land for agricultural production in Croatia amounts to 806,328 ha. This land could be used for the establishment of forest cultures where timber for industry and bioenergy could be produced.
The current conditions in Croatia give us reason to believe that there are good possibilities for biodiesel production from rape seed (especially rape oil) using first generation technologies, and biodiesel from lignocellulose biomass and its residues in agriculture and forestry with the application of second generation technologies. Moreover, a large number of cattle farms in Croatia produce large quantities of organic residue (especially animal manure) which could be usefully converted into biogas for both economic and ecological reasons.
The quantity of biomass from agrocultures amounts to 1,239,550 (t) annually, which is only 30 % of their value. The remaining 70 % of the biomass should be left on agricultural land to allow organic matter in the soil to regenerate naturally. The total equivalent value in crude oil from agricultural areas is 428,992 t/annually.
Apart from biomass from agricultures, significant biomass quantities also exist in cattle breeding. Animal manure and organic residue from cattle are used for biofuel production – biogas. Annual quantities of overall animal manure in Croatia amount to 381,480,000 t and represent 25 % of the existing annual quantities. This biomass quantity (organic residue in husbandry) may provide a total of 244,538 t of annual equivalent values of crude oil.
Present agricultural production may provide 673,530 t/annually of biofuels from biomass (organic residue and waste) in the equivalent value of crude oil without jeopardizing permanent natural regeneration of organic matter in the soil.
Croatia possesses 2,688,687 ha of forests and forestland with 397,963,000 m3 of growing stock which increments annually by 10,526,000 m3. The annual cut or the prescribed cut is 6,564,000 m3 of gross volume. Of the total annual cut, about 40 % or 2,625,600 of timber is used for processing, 20 % or 1,312,800 m3 for of fuelwood for energy and the remaining 40 % or 2,625,000 m3 is left in the forest as waste.
Of this residue, 62.5 % or 1,641,000 m3 could be used for bioenergy production, while 37 % or 984,000 m3 would remain in the forest as waste. If this amount suitable for bioenergy is added to the quantity of 1,312,800 m3 of fuelwood, the total quantity of energy wood that could already be placed on the energy market amounts to 2,953,800 m3, which is 45 % of the total annual cut. This quantity could provide 600,000 t/annually of biofuel in the equivalent value of crude oil.
Therefore, Croatia can produce an annual biofuel quantity of 1,273,539 t from the existing reserves in agriculture and forestry. This amount is 2.8 times higher than the quantity (452,325 t) which Croatia is obliged to use in traffic instead of fossil fuels by 2030 (the EU Directive of 2003).
Taking into account realistic potential possibilities of biofuel production in agriculture and forestry, we believe that a strategy on biomass use and biofuel production should be developed in Croatia with the goal of achieving economic and ecological bene.
MATIĆ, Slavko ŠL
|Sučić, I.||UDK 630* 156 (001)||331|
|Rock – Partridge (Alectoris Graeca Meisner) Population Size on Mountain Tušnica in the Period between 2000 and 2007|
|Summary: This paper reports on the results of the rock partridge counting on mountain Tušnica in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the period between 2000 and 2007. Given the declining population size of this typical Karst region game-fowl over the last few decades, the purpose of the research was to determine its number by using the sample plot method. Possible reasons of declining in the number of population in that time are overmuch hunting, larger number of predators and changes in habitat (succession of forest vegetation). Number of rock partridges in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not precise and determined (about 10000 pairs), neither is a population trend, whereas in Croatia number of rock partridges, as the last results indicate, is around 5000 and 10000 pairs, and popu.
SUČIĆ, Ivica ŠL
|Hukić, E., A. Dounavi, D. Ballian||UDK 630* 165 (001)||337|
|Dna Analysis of London Planetree of Tree Lined Walkways of the City of Sarajevo|
|Summary: Interspecific hybridization often blurs the species boundaries both in natural and artificial conditions. Thus a verification of identity based on morphological characters only is not sometimes fully reliable. Such an example is the case of Platanus x acerifolia and P. orientalis co-occurring in city tree line, parks and artificial stands. Therefore we carried out an analysis using molecular markers to distinguish tree individuals that could not be assigned either to P. x acerifolia or P. orientalis. The individuals of P. x acerifolia and P. orientalis originated from three mixed groups collected in Sarajevo area and a group of P. orientalis from Cyprus was used as a control group. The four cpDNA microsatelite primers (ccmp3, ccmp6, ccmp7, ccmp10), an ITS sequence of trnT-trnL region and a pair of 5S nDNA primers were used to distinguish Platanus sp. individuals. No polymorphism was detected for any of analyzed DNA sequences and therefore distinction between the plane trees could not be achieved. The lack of polymorphism might be explained by dominant mode of inheritance for targeted sequences that are maternally transferred in hybridization processes.
Key words: DNA; London planetree (Patanus x acerifolia); microsatelite
|Pintarić, B.||UDK 630* 165||343|
|Micropropagation of White Poplar (Populus alba L.)|
|Summary: The plant material used in this experiment derives from the laboratory Firenza Scienza e Tecnologia Ambientali Forestali. It had already been introduced into the culture so that in this paper we only conducted the procedures of shoot multiplication, shoot lengthening, shoot restoration and their acclimatization. Namely, the plants were taken from Erlenmeyer flasks in sterile (aseptic) conditions. The damaged leaves and the callus were removed with a scalpel. The tree was then segmented into individual explants with at least one node of 1–2 cm. The dissected explants were transferred to the fresh multiplication medium. The culture was multiplied in the basic medium: modified Woody Plant Medium (WPM; MS /Murashige and Skoog/ - macroelements, WPM – microelements and vitamins) with the addition of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/l BA (6-benzyladenine).
The explants were transferred to fresh mediums every 28–35 days, which in fact represented the subcultivation period (passaging) during the nine-month duration of the experiment (from November 2006 to June 2007). The growth of the explants was slowed or halted due to impoverished nutrients, the drying of the agar, the production of poisonous bioproducts and lower quantity of oxygen in the flask. Therefore, only the healthy tissue was subcultivated. The shoots were multiplied in multiplication mediums; in other words, new shoots were differentiated by induction from lateral buds. Approximately one month later new lateral branches could easily be identified and removed from the parent tree. At this period it was noticed that the shoots behaved differently in the mentioned mediums. In order to assess potential multiplication and the multiplication rate of a given species, the potential explants were separated from the parent explant and transferred to the new medium.
The shoot multiplication rate in these mediums varied and amounted to 5.36 per explant for M1 medium and to 5.86 for M2 medium during the first five passages. However, in the subsequent passages the lines were clearly separated and the number of new shoots per explant on M1 medium dropped to the average 1.8; whereas it rose to 13.45 per explant on M2 medium.
The growth rate of the plant material of white poplar under in vitro conditions was proportionate to the multiplication rate in both types of multiplication mediums. However, plant growth rate in M1 medium was more distinct compared to M2 medium, where this relationship changed very quickly and clearly in the three following passages. Thus, the M2 medium proved superior for long-lasting use of these explants under in vitro cultures.
A part of the explants was “sacrificed” at different time intervals in order to obtain and measure mean fresh and dry mass values. After “sacrificing” the explants and collecting fresh and dry mass data, some basic statistical data were calculated (Table 4) for the growth rate of the plant material under in vitro conditions. According to the data, the shoots cultivated in the M1 medium had mean fresh mass values of 0.04022 g and dry mass of 0.00888 g. The subsequent control measurements showed the mean fresh mass value of 0.03588 g and dry mass value of 0.00630 g. On the other hand, the explants cultivated in the M2 medium showed fresh mass values of 0.03851 g and 0.00743 g and dry mass values of 0.02988 g and 0.01397 g.
Isolated shoots sized about 3-4 cm showed 100 % rooting under in vitro conditions after being planted into the rooting medium (Z) with the addition of 0.1 mg/l IBA (Indol Butric Acid) for seven days and their transplanting into the basic hormone-free medium (BH) in the following tree weeks. In the acclimatization stage, the rooted plants were transferred from the sterile containers in which they were cultivated into the soil substrate (soil and sand at 3:1 ratio) outside the chamber climate.
The root system was cleaned from the medium particles with agar using a spray of sterile distilled water. The plants were transplanted into the soil substrate previously sterilized with fungicide. These young plants did not have a sufficiently developed cuticula, a functional stomatal apparatus, a good vascular connection between the root and the shoot, well developed root hairs, etc., so it was necessary to acclimatize them gradually to the ex vivo conditions. This was achieved with temporary protection of the young plants with sterile glass containers. The removal of the containers was strictly controlled and the period of removal was lengthened every day in order to enable gas exchange. On the other hand, for the first seven days the plants were watered with sterile distilled water and after that with tap water.
Although this is usually a critical stage, all the transplanted individuals managed to acclimatize to relatively low air humidity prevailing in external conditions (ex vitro conditions). No phenotypal changes were observed on the plant material either in in vitro or in vivo conditions during the experiment.
|Frković, A.||UDK 630* 902.1 + 648 + 156||355|
|Josip Ettinger – The First Croatian Zoologist|
|Summary: On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the death of Josip Ettinger (Nova Gradiška, 20 November 1801 – Zagreb, 4 February 1908), the article presents the life and work of this forestry expert and publicist, one the first Croatian zoologists, dendrologists and ornithologists. After completing the study of forestry in Mariabrunn, he spent most of his working life in Srijem and the Bjelovar-Križevci region, where he investigated the authentic flora and fauna of the area and collected material for the Country Zoological Museum in Zagreb and the dendrological collection of the Croatian-Slavonian Forestry Association. His special interest involved the bird world of Obedska Bara. His work “Der Syrmische Sumpf Obedska Bara und seine Vogelwelt” (Vienna 1857) attracted the interest of foreign and home ornithologists in this birds´ reserve. In his first book from the field of game management, “Sriemsko-slavonsko-hrvatske divlje životine, zvieri i ptice” (The Srijem-Slavonian-Croatian Wild Animals, Beasts and Birds) he complemented the Latin names of the described animals with their Croatian equivalents. The JAZU (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts) published the work dealing with the forms of the genus Quercus, which he produced in cooperation with Ljudevit Vukotinovic. After his retirement in Zagreb, he became highly active in science and publishing. With the support of the Croatian-Slavonian Forestry Association, he published several books and manuals from the field of forestry and hunting. This article deals particularly with the following works: Hrvatski lovdžija (The Croatian Hunter), The Registry of Authors and Articles published in the Forestry Journal and the Croatian Forestry Lexicon.
Key words: common names of animals; Josip Ettinger; oaks in the Bjelovar County; Obedska Bara; ornithology
FRKOVIĆ, Alojzije ŠL
|Prebježić, P.||UDK 630* 907||363|
|Spatial Presentation of Diameter Class Series from the First Measurement of the Permanent Plot in “Čorkova Uvala” Virgin Forest in 1957|
|Summary: Vertical profiles and a picture of a sample plot situated in a stand in the virgin forest of Čorkova Uvala in the Plitvice Lakes National Park were presented in “Forestry Journal” No 7–8/2007. The graphic construction was presented from a bird´s eye perspective. The goal of the published graphic presentations was to give a clear picture of the stand in the permanent plot, but we took a step further.
Since tree diameter is the main factor for calculating the basal area and wood volume, we decided to distribute the trees in the stand according to diameter classes and present them from a bird’s eye perspective. The stand structure was taken from a work by Prpić (1979).
The following five diameter classes were identified:
– 1st diameter class up to 10 cm at breast height
– 2nd diameter class from 11 cm to 30 cm at breast height
– 3rd diameter class from 31 cm to 50 cm at breast height
– 4th diameter class from 51 cm to 80 cm at breast height
– 5h diameter class over 81 cm at breast height
The picture projection of the stand structure was made separately for each diameter class (see Figures from 1 to 5).
Tree distribution by diameter class is correlated with space. This includes tree structure, soil category with reference to rockiness and karst phenomena (cracks, sinkholes, rocks), terrain configuration, exposition, inclination, tree series grown in rows on rotten lying trees and others.
The presented stand interpretation allows complex elaboration of its structural relationships and the life span of the tree species forming the virgin forest.
PREBJEŽIĆ, Petar ŠL