|AT THE END OF 2011 – THE INTERNATIONALYEAR OF FORESTS|
|When we announced in the last double issue of Forestry Journal all the activities facing the forestry profession in the International Year of Forests, we also expressed our hope that the profession would take this opportunity to introduce itself both to the world and home public in the best possible light.Croatia, at whose proposal the UN declared 2011 as the International Year of Forests, organized a well attended photo exhibition “The Forest in the Eye of the Forester”in the UN building in New York. We reported about the very positive echoes of the exhibition in the last issue. During the past years, the forestry profession has hosted numerous excursions, international scientific-specialist symposia, student exchanges and many other events so as to bring the forestry profession closer to the world forestry public. The Croatian Forestry Society headquarters and its branches, the Academy of Forestry Sciences, the company Hrvatske Šume, the Croatian Chamber of Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers and the competent Ministry in particular have endeavoured to present the forestry profession by staging a variety of organized events.
If we were to assess how all these activities were treated by the media, we would have to settle for badly or poorly at best, naturally with some fine exceptions. For example, it is symptomatic that bold headlines and longer forestry-related articlesin the print media treatforestry issues only in the negative context, where space is given only to some self-proclaimed experts wrapped in the cloak of interest groups. We do not claim that there have been absolutely no faults in the management with state companies, but the mentioned texts have primarily endorsed private business interest, demonstrated gross ignorance of how the forestry sector functions (the sector of vital importance for the lives of people in rural areas), and most importantly, showed neglect for general interest contained in non-market forest functions.Everything is subordinate to profit, while the idea of concession on forests is repeatedly being emphasised. We expressed our opinion of this idea in the editorial of Forestry Journal 1-2/2011; we also treated the type and mission of the state company: is it a public corporation or private company?In the TV programme “At 2 on Sunday”, as part of their pre-election campaigns the employers’representative and some political parties urgedthat the means for OKFŠ (non-market forest functions) be revoked and that in the transitional period of 3 to 4 years, an identical amount be paid as profit into the state budget by the state company.We fully support the abolition of certain irrationalities in forest management and the practice of appointing politically acceptable cadres; at the same time, we find it unjustifiableto talk only about profit and neglect the issue of sustainable management, which requires investing into forests, financing forest management on karst, investing into fire prevention and preservation of non-market forest functions, etc. The idea of profit only, shrouded in the motto of general interest, in reality hides the wish to exonerate the private entrepreneurial sector from financing goods of general benefit. True, this is a legitimate way of thinking, but in this case the local authorities should forget about the annuities from forests which they are currently collecting, timber processing entrepreneurs should likewise forget about their debts to forestry, absurd terms of payment and cheap raw material at dumped pricesdictated by the state rather than by the market at the expense of forestry, and rural inhabitants should cure themselves of treating a company as a social institution not only as regards employment but also as regards all the other activities covered by a rural forest office. The state will eventually have to find a different source of some 100 million kuna a year for fire prevention (currently provided by the company HrvatskeŠume), solve the problems of water fees and of financing forest management on karst, as well asensure that private forest owners also pay into the budget. After all, the Forest Law is equally binding for all forest owners and the Constitution stipulates that all forests are of special interest for the Republic of Croatia.
There is still no development strategy, which we already discussed in the Editorial of Forestry Journal 5–6/2011; in fact, not one political party has put this strategy on the agenda of their electoral programmes. Forestry and the management with an immense national treasure that covers almost one half of continental Croatia are mentioned only in passing. Yet, the Danube-Sava canal again features high despite the negative opinion of the profession.
There are a number of topical issues, which the Croatian Forestry Society discusses at every Management Board and Assembly meeting and tries to find the best solutions: surely, the profession deserves to be heard.
In the hope that the voice of the profession will be heededin the coming year, we wish all the readers of Forestry Journal a Very Merry Christmas and a Happy and Successful 2012.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Tančeva Crmarić, O., S. Štambuk, Z. Šatović, D. Kajba|| UDK 630* 165
(Prunus avium L.) (001)
|Genotypic Diversity ofWild Cherry (Prunus aviumL.) in the Part of its Natural Distribution in Croatia|
|Summary: Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) has recently drawn great attention because of its noble and high quality wood, but also because of its importance in preserving genetic diversity. Clonal material used to investigate genotypic diversity of the wild cherry was taken from the clonal seed orchard (Kutina Forest Office) and consisted of 24 selected plus trees from the area of north-western Croatia. The clones were analyzed by 15 selected microsatellite markers (SSR), chosen by the ECPGR. A wealth of allelic variations was found in SSR loci, while a high degree of polymorphism confirmed the existence not only of extensive morphological but also a very significant genetic diversity. Based on pairwise proportion of shared allele distance (DPSAM) among the 24 clones of wild cherry, the average genetic distance of 0.573 was calculated. The smallest genetic distance (DPSAM= 0.100) was recorded between the genotypes ‘KP2’ and ‘KP5’ (Kloštar Podravski, region Koprivnica), which coincided in 27 out of 30 alleles, whereas the largest genetic distance (DPSAM= 0.933) was found between the genotypes ‘Đu2’ (Đulovac, Bjelovar region) and ‘L3’ (Lipovljani, Zagreb region), which differed in 28 out of 30 alleles. The genetic distance matrix, based on pairwise proportion of shared allele distance (DPSAM), did not show a clear classification of wild cherry individuals with regard to their origin, i.e. region (Koprivnica, Bjelovar, Zagreb). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a significantly higher percentage (95.88 %) of the total microsatellite diversity caused by the differences among the invidividuals within the regions, compared to that caused by the differences between the studied regions (4.12 %). The . – statistics, amounting to 0.041, was highly significant (P < 0.01) and indicates the existence of specific regional structurality of genetic diversity. It is presented by the axes of factorial correspondence analysis (FCA). The first axis explains 63.76 % of the total inertia and discriminates the individuals from the Zagreb region from those from the Bjelovar and Koprivnica regions, while the second axis with 36.24 % discriminates the individuals from the Bjelovar region from those in Koprivnica region.
Key words: genetic diversity; microsatelites SSR; Prunus avium L.
Tanačeva Crmarić, Olivera
KAJBA, Davorin ŠL
|Pezdevšek Malovrh, Š., D. G. Hodges, B. Marić, M. Avdibegović||UDK 630* 923 + 946 (001)||557|
|Private Forest Owner Expectations of Interest Associations: ComparativeAnalysis between Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina|
|Abstract: Private forests in Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina are important resources for national economic development. Based on differences in the proportion of private forests, the countries differ substantially with regard to the role of private forest owners, as well as the conditions of owner interest associations in the forest policy processes. Since private forest owners are so diverse, there is a need to better understand their expectation for interest associations. Surveys were conducted in 2008 on random samples of private forest owners in Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to examine the factors affecting their expectations. The study examined seven categories of expectations: silvicultural advice, harvesting advice, information about timber markets, information about legal regulations, information about strengthening entrepreneurship, support of forest road construction/maintenance and forest management training. Seven models were developed to examine the factors affecting each category of expectations. The results reveal that socio-demographic characteristics of private forest owners, ownership structure, and property conditions were associated with expectations. Three models (silvicultural advice, strengthening entrepreneurship and support of forest road construction/maintenance) were statistically significant in both countries. The strongest factor that influences the expectations for Slovenian private forest owners was education while in Bosnia-Herzegovina it was property size. Gender did not influence expectations of private forest owners in either country. Understanding the underlying factors influencing private forest owner expectations could aid in developing appropriate forest policy instruments to support owner cooperation within interest associations and improve private forest management.
Key words: Bosnia-Herzegovina; interest associations; private forest owner expectations; private forests; Slovenia
Pezdevšek Malovrh, Špela
Hodges, Donald G.
|Grubešić, M., K. Tomljanović, S. Kunovac||UDK 630* 156||567|
|Distribution and Abundance of Rock Partridge (Alectoris graeca Meisner) in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Summary: Determining the distribution and abundance of an animal species is important from the standpoint of several scientific fields. From the standpoint of hunting, and in view of the fact that partridge is on the game hunting list in the Republic of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, this is also a legal obligation.
Owing to its highly specific habitat requirements, the Rock Partridge inhabits almost inaccessible terrains overgrown with various degraded forms of deciduous and coniferous forests.
During the last fifty years different written sources have been used to determine partridge abundance. In the last two years, data provided by the Central Hunting Register have been considered official for the Republic of Croatia, and data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Water Management for Bosnia and Herzegovina. The smallest unit used to determine the distribution area is the hunting ground.
According to the available data, the officially determined number or the status of the parent fund in the territory of the Republic of Croatia entails 11 231 animals and a cull of 5 341 animals (table 1). In the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina the determined fund status is about 14 000 animals with a cull of 760 animals. Although these numbers are the only official statistical sources, they should nevertheless be taken with caution, particularly as regards Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to some written data, the rock partridge abundance monitored after the Second World War in the territory of the Republic of Croatia amounted to 7 000 birds. After this, the size of Rock Partridge populations gradually increased to reach 35 000 birds in the mid1980s. This was followed by an abrupt decline to only 10 000 animals, but in the last fifteen years the partridge population has been slowly increasing in numbers. The listed yearly overview can be seen in Table 1.
It should be stressed that during this period, the distribution area has most probably remained almost unchanged, although some accurate documents are missing. On the other hand, the reasons for such drastic changes in the abundance, or even more importantly, in population density, are varied and mutually intertwined. The current picture of the Rock Partridge status is certainly promising; still, all leaseholders who manage the Rock Partridge and all other experts involved in this issue have an obligation to improve the picture. Vegetation succession, the lack of cattle fund, the disappearance of suitable habitats, and growing numbers of hunters are definitely factors that impede an improvement in the Rock Partridge abundance. If the goal is to increase the number in the future, they will be forced to constantly ameliorate habitat opportunities with hunting economic measures and above all, with predator control.
Key words: cull; distribution; hunting grounds; parent fund; Rock partridge
GRUBEŠIĆ, Marijan ŠL
TOMLJANOVIĆ, Kristijan ŠL
|Šprem, N., M. Piria, H. Novosel,T. Florijančić, B.Antunović,T.Treer||UDK 630* 156 + 134||575|
|Morphological Variability of the Croatian Wild Boar Population|
|Abstract: Between 2007 and 2009, a total of 181 individual wild boar were scored using nineteen morphological measurements from three geographical regions to describe morphological variety of the population throughout Croatia. In some regions we found phenotypical variability of the wild boar population based on hybridization The results of ANOVA show that some variables were significantly different (body weight, tail length, trunk length) but some of them were not homogenous for all age classes (circumference of shin, the most caudal point of scapula, circumference at chest) and were unable to highlight differences among the areas. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed a connection of sampling sites with some morphological trait. Results of cluster analysis using TREE procedure indicate separation on the two subpopulations and suggesting the existence of morphological differences. Overall the results confirmed that different morphotypes of wild boar are detectable in some different areas of Croatia, and in some counties the wild boar population has been hybridized with domestic pigs, which result in phenotypical variability where the wild characteristics predominate. These results confirmed the need for population genetic studies to identify the different subpopulations of wild boar presently found in Croatia
Key words: Croatia; morphological variability; wild boar
|Stojanović,D., S.Ćurčić, S.Orlović, Z.Galić||UDK 630* 453||585|
|Noctuid Pest Species Inventory (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of the National Park “Fruška Gora”|
|Summary: The paper presents a part of the forest entomology inventory and pest monitoring results during the 7-year research period (2002–2008) conducted within the National park “Fruška gora” in Syrmia, Northwest Serbia. A classical approach standardized for the Macrolepidoptera monitoring programs was applied. Several light trap models were used as well as Malaise traps. Moths were also collected directly, on street lights, flowers and with wine baited traps. Species abundance, frequency af appearance and corresponding flight periods was obtained with the negligible impact to the fauna, complying to the standards prescribed in the areas of protected nature. Taxonomical identification of the recorded noctuid moths was done according to most relevant and recognized keys, listed in the references. In total, 55 species of potentially harmful Noctuidae species were recorded during the 7-year inventory. By the starting assumption, their harmfulness was derived from the former literature data as well as rich forest protection, defoliator outbreak history and field experience of local forestry. Out of 204 noctuids known for the area of Fruška gora, only the listed 55 (Table 1) were chosen for the purpose of this paper. Comparison with the results of the neighboring Spačva forest (Eastern Croatia) where 161 noctuid species were recorded in a multiyear research in the 1970-ies out of which 34 were categorized as potentially harmful (capable to generate outbreaks of various magnitudes). Both in the Croatian side (Spačva forest) and National Park “Fruška gora” species from the subfamily Hadeninae and Noctuinae were dominating noctuids.
For all the listed species, place and date of the first record is given, their flight period, food plant and observed frequency (given as number of specimens in various number classes – Table 1). It is concluded that, during the monitoring period none of the recorded species caused damages that could be categorized as harmful for the tree species of their corresponding food plants.
Key words: Lepidoptera; National park “Fruška gora”; Noctuidae; nouctuid moths; pests
|Lovrić, M., S. Krajter, M. Landekić, Ž. Zečić, N. Lovrić, D. Vusić, I. Martinić, M. Šporčić||UDK 630* 327 + 362||595|
|Development and Reprecutions of EU Legislation Related to Illegal Logging|
|Summary: EU has made a series of legislative acts by which the control of trade of wood and wood based products is introduced, all in order to ensure the legality of these products. The basis of this control system is placing the responsibility for the legality of these products on the companies (“operators”) that are first to place wood and wood based products on the EU market. In order to secure themselves from the risk of placing illegal products on the market the operators should develop a due diligence system by which the legality of the chain of custody of these products would be controlled. For operators that do not have sufficient capacities to develop their own due diligence system the EU is set to help them by assigning monitoring organizations to develop national due diligence systems. Basic elements of the due diligence systems are access to information, risk assessment and risk mitigation. This control system is defined by the Timber regulation (EC, 998/2010), which is valid from March the 3rd, 2013. The European Commission has made a commitment do define the specificities of the system by June 3rd, 2012.
In order to simplify the control of chain of custody, the EU endorses bilateral voluntary partnership agreements (VPA’s) with partner countries for which exists a medium or high level of risk of illegal logging. Such agreements encompass border control of origin of wood or wood based products which are exported from the partner county to the EU. The core of every VPA is the definition of the legality of wood, which encompasses the respective legislative framework and a series of chapters which serve as a basis for field audits. In order to broaden the acceptance of VPA’s the European Commission in cooperation with many international organizations promotes building connections between the VPA’s and voluntary certification systems in forestry.
It is expected that without spreading of VPA’s to China and Russia the current partner countries will have bare an increase in timber prices of 70% by 2020. Within the same time period it is also expected that the production of roundwood in developed countries will increase by 4%, and that it will decrease by 8% in the developing countries. Even a broad expectance of VPA’s cannot ensure the success of implementation of the Timber regulation, because the control of legality of wood can be circumvented by trading it with EU via a third country that does not have a VPA. After its accession to the EU the Republic of Croatia will have to develop its own due diligence system, in which special care should be attributed to wood coming from private forests and to imported wood. If Hrvatske šume Ltd. continues on to be FSC certified, the control of legality of wood coming from state owned forests will be simplified, and will mostly fall under the already existing “controlled wood” standard.
Key words: due diligence; EU FLEGTAction plan; Illegal timber trade; Timber regulation
KRAJTER, Silvija ŠL
ZEČIĆ, Željko ŠL
VUSIĆ, Dinko ŠL
MARTINIĆ, Ivan ŠL
ŠPORČIĆ, Mario ŠL