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HR  EN   

11-12/2017

WEB EDITION


Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*PAPER EDITION
DIGITAL ARCHIVE

HRČAK
Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić


     
 
EDITORIAL
 
Uredništvo   545
THE FORESTRY PROFESSION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS      
EDITORIAL
According to Wikipedia, the aim of public relations is to "foster the relationship with stakeholders who constitute the environment of an organisation for the purpose of obtaining support for its goals and develop trust and reputation". The Public Relations Society of America defines public relations as a "strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organisations and their publics (governments, citizens, media, markets ...).
After the explanation of the terms from the title, the question arises whether the forestry profession has done enough to "obtain support for its goals/tasks and build trust and reputation"? Judging by the current status and perception of forestry in the eyes of "its publics", it most obviously has not done so. One can always do better and one should not shy away from it. However, an alarming number of facts indicates that the forestry profession is being ignored. The reasons for this are open for discussion, but in our opinion, one of the most important reason is the lack of "strategic communication" from the above definition. Such communication requires meritorious partners at the public level, which the Croatian Forestry Association has not had despite continuous efforts to obtain them. It is not hard to communicate strategically because we have arguments which can change the public treatment; what we need to do is to present them frequently and in the right places to those who are willing to listen, even at the risk of repeating ourselves. These arguments have often been highlighted in the columns of Forestry Journal, and particularly in this column.   
First and foremost, we advocate the principle of market forest management in the sale of forest products, which means competing for raw wood material rather than purchasing it by contracts/allocation at prices which are much lower than those in the EU and in the surrounding countries. We have repeatedly warned that such low prices, particularly of the most valuable wood assortments, lead to squandering the national wealth and enabling some to make good profit at the  primary wood processing stage. This is not conducive to the production of highly finalized products, which would provide high employment of professional workers and engineers as well as ensure the economic use of raw material. Market prices of raw material have never been a problem to proper finalists. An article in Slobodna Dalmacija commends wood processing as an important component of GDP and of growing export, with the exception of  furniture.. Let us ask ourselves why it is only export of furniture that is not growing. The answer is very simple: we export  raw wood material at the lowest possible processing stage. Consequently, we also export work places for the benefit of foreign buyers. Add to this the FSC certification and our squandering nature is complete.
When we discussed non-wood forest functions (NWFF) and the NWFF tax, we pointed out that we were dealing with the most valuable resources at our disposal: soil, forest, water and air, which are among the most important climate components. Let us put forth some facts; e.g. at average rainfall of 1,200 mm annually, our forests provide about 13 billion tons of potable water, the strategic resource of the 21st century. Our forests also sequester more than 5 billion tons of carbon. It is estimated that wood as a source of energy that heats family homes, at combustion of 20,000 kWh per annum releases 100 kg CO2, gas 4,600 kg CO2, and fuel oil 5,600 kg CO2. Employment related to the use of wood as energy is 1 : 9 in favour of wood for the same amount of energy. The world is currently concerned with the reduction of so-called carbon economy. There is also an increasing number of those advocating low-carbon economy. As for the NWFF tax, it is being constantly decreased in the Forest Law. The same goes for the proposal of the new Law, in which this joint expenditure is being denunciated as "parafiscal tax" by large capital. In the framework of socially responsible business, a part of the profit should be returned to the community and the environment, which is precisely the function of the NWFF tax. The proposal of the Law, related to the reduction of the tax, suggests that everything below 1 million kuna revenue annually should be exempt from the tax. Conscientious economists understand the need to allocate this tax for the general benefit of the society and regard this tax as their obligation and not an impost.  
According to information from media discussions with competent agents, a new Climate Change Adaptation Strategy will be implemented and stricter criteria for climate change deceleration will be imposed. Investment of about 70 million euro annually is predicted - justifiably so, because damage is estimated at over 80 million euro annually. Whether there will be a change in the attitude towards the forestry profession and forests, which have a crucial impact on climate change, remains to be seen. In the hope of better treatment of the forestry profession and engineering professions in general, which are the only ones to generate additional value, we wish our readers Merry Christmas and a Happy and Successful Year 2018.
<br>Editorial Board


    authors:
    Uredništvo
 
 
ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS
 
Snježana MALIĆ-LIMARI, Sanja TIŠMA, Anamarija PISAROVIĆ, Sven D. JELASKA  UDK 630* 272 (001) 547
SPATIAL ANALYSES OF LANDCOVER AND RELIEF DIVERSITY OF THE MEDVEDNICA NATURE PARK – POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS FOR OPTIMISING VISITOR PRESSURE      
Summary
The Nature Park Medvednica, which is V protection category, according to the IUCN categorization implies recreation beside landscape preservation management in terms of natural protection, tourism and recreation, as well as scientific research, biodiversity preservation, education and sustainable exploitation of natural resources. The forests represent basic value of this area and condition its purpose and management. It has been determined that habitat diversity indices vary dependently on data spatial resolution. The habitat map M 1:25,000 showed to be the most appropriate (compared to 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales) for the analyses of the Park’s management and for certain areas the data of higher spatial resolution would be desirable. Data on plant diversity, and previously calculated landforms diversity per MTB 1/64 grid units were used as well. When identifying the tourist and visiting areas of the Park it is necessary to include biodiversity value of the area in order to sustainably manage among nature and cultural protection and tourist exploitation. The GIS usage in nature protection management is justifiable and very efficient, enabling the generation and collection of multidisciplinary data as well as spatial model projection obtained using these data, helping in prompt decision making, saving time and resources.

Key words: landforms; GIS; habitat map; vegetation map; diversity index

    authors:
    Snježana MALIĆ-LIMARI  
    Sanja TIŠMA  
    Anamarija PISAROVIĆ  
    Sven D. JELASKA  
 
Mahmut REIS, Ilknur ALTUN ALADAG, Nursen BOLAT, Hurem DUTAL  UDK 630* 116 (001) 563
USING GEOWEPP MODEL TO DETERMINE SEDIMENT YIELD AND RUNOFF IN THE KEKLIK WATERSHED IN KAHRAMANMARAS, TURKEY      
Summary
GeoWEPP is a geo-spatial interface of the WEPP (The Water Erosion Prediction Project) model that predicts sediment yield and runoff using digital georeferenced information integrated with GIS tools. Besides, the model has ability to determine where the sediment yield and runoff occurs and locates possible deposition places. In this study, GeoWEPP model was used to estimate sediment yield and runoff from Keklik watershed, which is located 12 km from Kahramanmaras in the eastern Mediterranean region. The digital maps of the input files required for GeoWEPP model were generated using GIS tools. The estimated average annual sediment discharge and delivery of watershed were 34533.5 tones and 44.2 tones/ha, respectively. This study indicated that GeoWEPP model can provide decision makers with quick estimation of sediment yield from large watersheds with high accuracy. 

Key words: Sediment Yield; Runoff; WEPP; GeoWEPP; GIS

    authors:
    Mahmut REIS  
    Ilknur ALTUN ALADAG  
    Nursen BOLAT  
    Hurem DUTAL  
 
 
PRELIMINARY COMMUNICATION
 
Zdravko DOLENEC  UDK 630* 148.2 + 111.8 571
ADVANCES IN ARRIVAL DATE OF THE COMMON CUCKOO (Cuculus canorus L.) IN THE FORESTS OF NORTHWESTERN CROATIA      
Summary
The Earth is getting warmer at its surface and this global warming can be linked to numerous different phenomena worldwide and it has great impact on ecosystems. Responses to climate change vary interspecies, intraspecies and among different area. Most of the birds in the temperate regions arrive earlier from their wintering places and it is believed that this is a response to the significantly higher spring temperatures. The main aim of this work is to describe changes in spring arrival dates of Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) in the period between 1989 and 2016, and also, to identify relationship between dates of arrival and mean spring temperature in the researched period. The Common Cuckoo is an obligate brood parasite and common bird species in study area. In this research, mean April temperature is used as the mean spring temperature because April is the month when this bird species returns from wintering. First arrival date is the common type of data in investigation of connections between climate change and timing of migration. In research of the most bird species this is when the birds are observed for the first time that year, but in the Common Cuckoo, noting the first time hearing them sing is more usual method. Results of this study suggest that climate changes cause earlier arrival of the Common Cuckoo from the wintering place to the breeding area. Their first arrival date in northwestern Croatia has advanced (significantly) by seven days over the past 28 years. Correlation between first arrival date and average April temperature is also significant. Mean spring temperature increased significantly from 1989 to 2016. This result indicates that mean spring temperature has an influence on the date of the Common Cuckoo first arrival. For the Common Cuckoo, it is important that climate changes don’t cause significant differences in the timing of breeding between them and their host bird species.

Key words: Common Cuckoo; Cuculus canorus; spring temperature; spring migration; forests

    authors:
    Zdravko DOLENEC  
 
Dejan KULIJER, Mirza DAUTBAŠIĆ, Boris HRAŠOVEC, Adi VESNIĆ, Šemso ŠARIĆ, Osman MUJEZINOVIĆ  UDK 630* 453 577
Leptoglossus occidentalis HEIDEMANN, 1910 (Heteroptera: Coreidae) IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA – CURRENT DISTRIBUTION AND THE EARLIEST DOCUMENTED RECORDS      
Summary
Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 is an invasive bug species native to the western part of North America and one of 16 alien Heteroptera species in Europe. After it was first found in Italy in 1999, the species spread fast across the continent, including the Balkan Peninsula. Our study confirms the species presence in Bosnia and Herzegovina and gives data on its distribution, including the earliest records for the country. Up untill now the species is found at nine different locations in the period from 2008 to 2016. The record from early spring 2008 suggests that the species was already present in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2007 or even earlier. Most records pertain to overwintering adults. For the first time the species is reported from Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii H. Christ). The species is also reported from Klek village in Dubrovnik region, south Croatia.

Key words: alien species; Balkan Peninsula; conifers; Hemiptera; insect; invasive species; Pinus heldreichii; true bugs; western conifer seed bug

    authors:
    Dejan KULIJER  
    Mirza DAUTBAŠIĆ  
    HRAŠOVEC, Boris      ŠL
    Adi VESNIĆ  
    Šemso ŠARIĆ  
    Osman MUJEZINOVIĆ  
 
Erhan ÇALIŞKAN  UDK 630* 383 583
PLANNING OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND FOREST ROAD ROUTE USING GIS & S-MCDM      
Summary
Forest roads are basic precondition for the sustainable management of forest resources. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. Therefore, the design of forest road routes should have taken into account in terms of environmental impacts. In order to do this, the Geographical Information System (GIS) with Spatial Multi Criteria Decision Making (S-MCDM) techniques is a useful tool for creating a model. One such S-MCDM is the Spatial-integrated Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (S-TOPSIS). In this study, S-TOPSIS was applied to integrate environmental impacts into the design of a forest road route. Using the current forest road route (CFOR) and the GIS-based S-TOPSIS method, an environmentally sound forest road route (ESFOR) was determined according to environmental criteria. Five environmental criteria (avalanche, river, soil, geology and slope) were used for analysis to compare with. The results obtained from the analyses, are compared to the current forest road route. The CFOR 15.385 km in length, while the ESFOR found by S-TOPSIS was 14.385 km. If the differences in length between two roads multiplied by the width of the road (1km X 5m), the result would be 0.5 ha. The results showed that this methodology can provide environmentally sound road network also help to design quickly and less costly. These results suggest that spatial multi criteria decision making method can be more accurate in terms of environmentally sensitive forest road designing in mountainous area.

Key words: Geographical Information System; Multi Criteria Decision Making; S-Topsis; forest road; environmentally sound

    authors:
    Erhan ÇALIŞKAN  
 
 
REVIEWS
 
Tomislav PORŠINSKY, Andreja ĐUKA, Ivica PAPA, Zoran BUMBER, David JANEŠ, Željko TOMAŠIĆ, Tibor PENTEK  UDK 630* 686 + 383 593
CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING PRIMARY FOREST TRAFFIC INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK DENSITY – EXAMPLES OF THE MOST COMMON CASES      
Summary
In any planning, so even when planning the network of forest roads, it is an imperative to know the existing situation, and to have a detailed and accurate insight into the existing forest road network of the forest area in the process of opening, usually enabled by the forest traffic infrastructure registry. To validate the quantity of the existing forest traffic infrastructure (road density), it is necessary to precisely and unambiguously define the criteria for determining the density of existing forest traffic infrastructure.
In Croatian forestry, the currently valid criteria for determining the density of primary forest traffic infrastructure are defined by the »Technical Requirements for Economic Roads« (Šikić et al. 1989), which are summarised in the Forestry Management Regulations (NN 111/06, NN 141/08) and (NN 79/15). The criteria mentioned are insufficiently precise and unclear, which leaves the forestry experts to make a series of subjective decisions in calculating the density of primary forest traffic infrastructure.
To avoid/reduce any subjectivity, to obtain objective data and to make comparability of the calculated primary traffic infrastructure density of different management units, a set of completely criteria have been developed that will serve to accurately, objectively and transparently determine primary forest traffic infrastructure density. The criteria have been developed and described in detail in the Form for the Effectiveness Study of Primary Forest Road Traffic Infrastructure, an integral part of the Bylaw on measure implementation M04 »Investments in physical assets«, by-measure 4.3 »Grant for investments in development, modernization and customization of agriculture and forestry«, operation type 4.3.3. »Investments in forest infrastructure« from the Program of Rural Development in the Republic of Croatia in the period from 2014 to 2020 (NN 106/15, 65/17).
The most frequent/characteristical examples of the application of criteria in determining the primary forest traffic infrastructure density are presented in the paper based on orthophoto maps together with photographs (image part of the primary forest traffic infrastructure registry from case studies).

Key words: primary forest traffic infrastructure density; basic/eliminatory criteria; specific/spatial criteria

    authors:
    PORŠINSKY, Tomislav      ŠL
    Andreja ĐUKA  
    Ivica PAPA  
    BUMBER, Zoran    ŠL
    David JANEŠ  
    TOMAŠIĆ, Željko    ŠL
    PENTEK, Tibor      ŠL