|WHERE DID POLITICALLY BASED PERSONNEL RECRUITMENT AND NON-MARKET MANAGEMENT LEAD US|
|Party-based (political) personnel recruitment in the Ministry and the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd for some time went hand in hand with professional attitudes, but later began to swerve, to be finally almost completely taken over by political and party interests. The unity of forestry education, science and practice, which had been at the core of every initiative for decades, somehow disappeared in the process. On their climb up the political ladder, many suddenly became the cleverest and the best experts, but in fact utterly forgot the profession and even the promise given at the graduation ceremony that they would apply the acquired knowledge to the best of their possibility. No wonder, then, that the Fimi Media and Planinska affairs took place. The poor perception of the foresters was aided by forestry "guardian angels" from the opposition, who did not discriminate between criticizing their colleagues and criticizing the profession. The ensuing result is the current situation. After the change of government, new personnel recruitment, proclaimed to be based on expertise, took place. However, the strictly party-biased recruitment continued to adhere to the principle of nepotism (my party, my village, my friend or neighbor), neglecting the profession completely. It is finally clear to all that an attack on forestry was launched, since only the most naive believe that the term "forestry" was only accidentally omitted from the name of the relevant Ministry. The Ministry has been without a deputy minister of forestry for almost two months, but nobody blinked an eye. The justified doubt of the professionalism and aptitude for the task by the aforementioned deputy minister were confirmed when he resigned from the post. At the moment, forestry is without a representative, with the current Minister being incapable of coping with agriculture, let alone thinking of forestry. He will not stir from the problem of cows and milk before the problem of wheat assails him.
One hundred and fifteen years ago, some clever people concluded that forestry management required the most highly educated forestry experts instead of those with secondary or college degrees. This was put to practice in 1989, when the Academy of Forestry (today’s Faculty of Forestry) was established as the fourth institution of higher education within the University of Zagreb. This testifies to the fact that exceptional biotechnical knowledge was in high demand even then. Today, however, with some honourable exceptions, what is needed for managerial positions is political allegiance. We are constantly surprised by the fact that forestry experts are being replaced by so-called managers of the general type.
Forestry is a biotechnical science and profession which definitely does not need managers of the "general practitioner" type, and even less those who are sent on duty or who are lured by the rustle of banknotes. In their "political correctness" they completely overlook the principles of sustainable management and the benefits of clean air, pure and stored water, erosion protection, tourist and health services and other non-commercial forest functions. All that matters is profit, even if it is made by not performing or by omitting operations related to biological forest reproduction, by abolishing work posts or cutting down on the employees’ salaries (e.g. by closing down some work posts and relegating employees to lower-ranked positions and much lower salaries). What is the purpose of early retirement and severance money if there is constant complaint that the number of the retired almost equals the number of the employed, what kind of politics raises the age for retirement while only about 17 percent employees manage to reach full retirement age? At the same time, young experts cannot get employment. Why is a company that makes positive business put in the same boat with a company that compiles losses amounting to billions of kuna? Where are the new jobs based on biomass, recreation, sport, tourism and other services, as in Austria, for example? We are getting tired of pointing out that timber is only a classical side product of sustainable forest management. Yet, the profit is constantly based on timber, and what is worse, on non-market principles, since there is no free price formation and no bidding for all available quantities of forest wood products. The final wood product is only a declarative political strategy: it is incompatible to proclaim it and at the same time favour numerous aspirers from primary production (sawmills) by prescribing and limiting the quantities of forest wood assortments. We have stressed more than once that wood as raw material participates in the manufacture of final products with only 20%. It would therefore be logical to seek certain concessions in production among those who participate with 80%, and not exclusively among foresters.
Finally, forestry as an economic branch was established two and a half century ago from fear of inexpert management and overuse of forest wood products. In view of the above, we may well ask ourselves: will we soon need a new Law which will enforce the exclusive return to the profession? This Law will not need to enforce higher forestry education since we have had it for 115 years, but regrettably, we have been forced to apply the acquired knowledge to a much lesser extent.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Andrej Rozman, Alen Vajdetič, Jurij Diaci|| UDK 630*234
(Abies alba Mill.) (001)
|A PROTECTED SILVER FIR (Abies alba Mill.) STAND IN SECONDARY SUCCESSION ON A FORMER PASTURE IN POLJANSKA DOLINA, SLOVENIA|
Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) is regarded as a typical climax species susceptible to environmental change. We analyzed a protected silver fir stand growing in an unusual combination of conditions: The stand is in secondary succession and is located at low elevation on limestone substrate. Stand history was revealed by an old military map and stand structure, the radial growth of dominant trees, and tree regeneration were sampled. In addition, five characteristic relevés were taken according to the standard Braun-Blanquet method.
The results confirmed that the stand originated from secondary succession; however, fir vitality and dominance as well as stand structure, including regeneration, suggested long-lasting stadia of almost pure silver fir (77 % of the growing stock). The growth pattern of dominant trees and large age variability of fir indicated that the stand did not originate from a completely open space. It is likely that fir gradually colonized the pioneer forest from neighboring stands. The stand was characterized by a high volume of live trees (773.6 m3 ha–1) and a low share of dead trees (4.1 %) in the growing stock. The most similar associations in terms of floristic composition are a secondary association Asperulo-Carpinetum betuli M. Wraber 1969 and a hornbeam-fir association (Abio albae-Carpinetum betuli Marinček 1994).
This study shows that fir can form almost pure stands during secondary succession of abandoned pastures on some sites and therefore expands the prevailing view that silver fir decline throughout human history has been due to anthropogenic influences. Due to the complex interactions between silver fir, its competitors, environmental factors, and human-induced disturbances, additional research is needed to support the conservative management of silver fir in decline.
Key words: total forest reserve; secondary succession; Abies alba; Picea abies; stem exclusion phase; silver fir decline and expansion
|Drago BRUMEC, Črtomir ROZMAN, Marjan JANŽEKOVIČ, Jernej TURK, Štefan ČELAN||UDK 630*10+156 (001)||147|
|AN ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT SCENARIOS FOR AGROFORESTRY ENVIRONMENT REGULATION OF DEGRADED LAND USING INTEGRATED SIMULATION AND A MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MODEL – A CASE STUDY|
In this paper, we examine different scenarios for appropriate environment regulation of degraded areas with silvopastoral system establishment using integrated computer-based deterministic simulation and a multi-criteria decision model. We test the possibility for the wild game farming of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in the game enclosure. The simulation model can simulate different scenarios for periods of 30 years and 50 years. Scenarios are further assessed with a multi-criteria decision model using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) (supported by the software tool Expert Choice (EC) 2000TM). With the multi-criteria assessment, EC = 0.054 scenario for a period of 50 years is considered most appropriate for environment regulation. The scenario includes organic farming of red deer in a silvopastoral system, settlement of all four areas in the first year, and hinds intended for sale. The silvopastoral system includes the tree species Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Prunus avium, and Alnus glutinosa, with a tree density of 248 tree/ha (62 of each tree species/ha) intended for logging after 50 years. The net present value (NPV) of this scenario at an 8.0 % annual discount rate is 280.685 €, while the internal rate of return (IRR) slightly exceeds 10 %.
Key words: Simulation model; Multi-criteria decision analysis; Analytical hierarchy process (AHP); Silvopasture; Wild game; Game enclosure
|Athanasios STAMPOULIDIS, Elias MILIOS*, Kyriaki KITIKIDOU|| UDK 630*23
(Juniperus excelsea M. Bieb.) (001)
|THE REGENERATION OF PURE Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. STANDS IN PRESPA NATIONAL PARK IN GREECE|
Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb is a species with growth plasticity that is capable of growing in harsh abiotic environments as well as in severe biotic conditions. In order to analyze the regeneration of J. excelsa pure stands in Prespa National Park of Greece and to determine whether regeneration in gaps or under facilitation of nurse plants dominates, ninety sample plots were established in two site types and six structural types. In each plot, all J. excelsa regeneration plants were graded in 2 categories. The first category represents the seedlings that have been established and grew under the facilitation of other plants, while the second category refers to seedlings that are found in canopy gaps without significant side shade. Facilitation does not dominate in the regeneration process of J. excelsa in Prespa National Park. On the other hand, this does not mean that regeneration in gaps predominates. Even though facilitation is not the dominant process in the regeneration of J. excelsa in Prespa National Park, a significant number of regeneration plants have been established under the facilitation. Site productivity seems to affect the process of facilitation. It seems that the process of grazing through trampling and animal tread determines the regeneration process of the species that can be established and grow either in light or under shade. J. excelsa can be a very interesting candidate species for restoration of degraded lands.
Key words: Juniperus excelsa; regeneration; facilitation; nurse plants; gap
|Miloš Koprivica, Bratislav Matović, Snežana Stajić, Vlado Čokeša, Đorđe Jović||UDK 630*814+524+537 (001)||173|
|DEAD WOOD IN MANAGED BEECH FORESTS IN SERBIA|
Dead wood in forests of Serbia hasn`t been studied so far, although it is an important component of forest ecosystems. This paper presents results of investigating volume, biomass, and carbon stock bound in the dead wood of beech high forests. The sample includes eleven pure beech stands selected in six forest regions. They are all uneven-aged stands that have been managed for the last several decades, mostly under selection or group-selection. Their site class is I/II–III/IV. The altitude ranges from 400 to 1380 m. One stand belongs to submontane (Fagetum moesiacae submontanum B. Jov. 1967) and ten to montane (Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953) beech forests. A systematic sample was used to determine the presence, quantity, diameter structure of volume, and state of dead wood considering its degree of decomposition both in standing and lying position. Sample plots of 500 m2, at a distance of 100 x 100 m were used as elements of the sample. Altogether 242 sample plots were established. The volume of aboveground dead wood was determined by applying familiar dendrometric methods, while the dry biomass was calculated on the basis of its volume and wood density at different degrees of decomposition. The biomass of belowground dead wood i.e. roots of stumps and snags was obtained directly using the relevant regression equations. The quantity of the carbon bound in dead wood was calculated by multiplying dry biomass of dead wood by 0.5 coefficient. A simple and a stratified sample were used for the purposes of estimating the average and total volume, biomass, and carbon stock of dead wood. It was concluded that the average aboveground deadwood volume in all studied stands amounted to 19.24 m3 ha–1. The aboveground biomass of dead wood was 6.06 t ha–1 and belowground 17.34 t ha–1, or 23.40 t ha–1 in total. The carbon-bound stock in the total estimated dry biomass of dead wood was 11.70 t C ha–1.
Key words: dead wood; managed beech forests; stand; volume; biomass; carbon; sample
|Kristijan Tomljanović, Marijan Grubešić, Dean Konjević, Zlatko Tomašić||UDK 630*156 (Perdix perdix L.)||185|
|SUCCESS OF RELEASING AND REINTRODUCING GREY PARTRIDGE (Perdix perdix L.) INTO THE WILDERNESS FROM ARTIFICIAL BREEDING IN HUNTING GROUND OF CENTRAL CROATIA|
The possibility of releasing and reintroducing artificially breaded partridges in open habitats has been researched through a period of two years, on the territories of two separate sites. During these two years 34 animals have been released from which 17 have been marked with a telemetric collar. Partridges from artificial breeding have been released in three different times of year. First release of a semi-adults has been carried out in hunting ground "Ježdovec–Stupnik" (site 1) where altogether five pairs of partridges have been released. Second release of the mother flock has been done in autumn in the territory of hunting ground "Črnovšćak" (site 2). Third release altogether and second in line has been carried out in early spring in the same territory when 16 animals have been released, and 8 marked. In the release sites preparation of habitat hasn’t been done. Telemetric collars that emit a signal every 2 seconds have been used for marking. Retention location of the released animals has been monitored and recorded on a daily basis with a radio antenna using the triangulation method. From 17 marked and released animals altogether 13 of them have been found dead after a shorter
or longer period of time. It has been determined that the length of survival of the released animal is significantly different considering the period of release. The longest survival had the animals released in summer, whereas the shortest survival had animals released in early spring. After the conducted research it can be determined that the release of partridges from artificial breeding with the purposes of creating a mother fund is questionable and it has justification only when all necessary conditions are met or in other words with a suitable habitat with a certain number of predators that won’t endanger the survival of the released animals. Optimal release time has been determined as early summer period when animals in habitat find enough food and shelter, when the climate conditions with enough water are favorable as well, on the other hand the survival problem of these animal remains after removal of agricultural crops when they become easy prey for fury and especially feather predators whose numbers cannot be directly influenced due to binding law regulations.
Key words: Grey partridges Perdix perdix L.; Plains; Survival; Telemetry
TOMLJANOVIĆ, Kristijan ŠL
GRUBEŠIĆ, Marijan ŠL
|Dinka Matošević, Ivana Pajač Živković||UDK 630*453+145.7||191|
|ALIEN PHYTOPHAGOUS INSECT AND MITE SPECIES ON WOODY PLANTS IN CROATIA|
Alien species are defined as species living outside of their natural range and outside of their natural dispersal potential. When an alien species enters a novel environment and has negative ecological and economical impact it becomes invasive species. Alien species are considered as one of the major threats to biodiversity after habitat destruction and enormous damage is done by them to ecosystems and economies. They have been described as an outstanding global problem. Economic damages associated with alien species in several countries in the world amount to about 5 % of the world GNP. Numerous alien insect species, many introduced only in the last 200 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Europe, 1541 species of alien invertebrates are already present, 94 % of them are arthropods and 90 % of them are insects. More than half of the alien invertebrates are phytophagous (52 %) and 30 % of them infest trees and shrubs. Basic knowledge of the identity, origin, pathway, time of introduction of alien species is essential for assessing the threats from alien species and the first requirement when assessing the impact of alien species on ecosystems is to make an alien species inventory of a certain territory or country. Such studies are needed to assess which taxonomic or bio-ecological groups of alien insects are more successful invaders or more harmful to environment and economy. Croatia lacks such an inventory. Even though Croatia was included in most recent and comprehensive study of alien terrestrial arthropodes in Europe, Croatian references with first records were totally missing. There is no up-to-date list of phytophagous alien insect species on woody plants in Croatia. The aim of this paper is to provide up-to-date comprehensive list of known phytophagous alien insect and mite species on woody plants in Croatia with all relevant Croatian references.
The starting point for compiling the list of alien species of phytophagous insects on woody plants in Croatia was a book "Alien Terrestrial Arthropodes of Europe" and database DAISIE. These are primary online resources on alien insect species available to the public and first qualified reference system on invasive alien species for the European region. We compiled the list by searching many sources of forestry, agricultural and taxonomic entomological peer-reviewed literature in Croatia, checklists and primary research publications on alien insect species. The references in these sources were examined for additional relevant publications.
A total of 101 phytophagous alien species (98 insect species from 6 orders and 3 mite species form subclass Acarina) on woody plants were recorded (Table 1) and they are already present in Croatian entomofauna. They were dominated by Hemiptera (56.4 %), Lepidoptera (14.9 %), Hymenoptera (12.9 %), followed by Diptera (5.9 %) and Coleoptera (5.9 %), Acarina (3 %) and Thysanoptera (1 %)(Figure 1). One third (33.7 %) of the alien species in Croatia originate from Asia, 26.7 % from North America while 12.9 % are of tropical origin (Figure 2). From the 101 established alien insect species in Croatia, an increase in the number of introductions can be noted in the first decade of 21st century (Figure 3). Agricultural lands are the most frequently invaded habitats by alien phytophagous insects in Croatia (56.4 %), followed by parks and gardens (28.7 %) and woodlands and forests (14.9 %)(Figure 4).
Order Hemiptera clearly dominates as it includes some of the most successful invaders (57 %) on woody plants in Croatia. Similar results were obtained at a country level for Hungary, Great Britain, Italy, Slovenia and Europe in general. This outcome can be attributed to the fact that species of this order remain undetected and are easily transported due to their tiny size in concert with the intensive trade in agricultural commodities. The occurrence of other orders (Lepidoptera 14 %, Hymenoptera 13 %, Diptera 6 %, Coleoptera 6 %, and Thysanoptera 1 %) is slightly different from other European countries. Results from several investigations have shown strong positive correlations between the number of alien insects per European country and the volume of manufactured and agricultural imports, road network size, the GDP and the geographic size. In contrast, alien species richness was not correlated with the total or percentage of forest cover. The number of alien insects is positively correlated with country surface area, and bordering the sea does not influence the number of alien insect species which is quite important for Croatia. There is a strong correlation between the number of alien insect species and the total amount of imports and level of international trade of the country. It can be predicted that the number of established alien insect species will grow as Croatia shows constant increase of traded commodities with other European and non-European countries. In this review we have listed alien insect species that have not yet been recorded for Croatia on European level. These are Oxycarenus lavaterae; Massilieurodes chitendeni; Adelges (Dreyfusia) nordmannianae; Pineus (Eopineus) strobi; Protopulvinaria pyriformis; Dryocosmus kuriphilus; Platygaster robinae; Aproceros leucopoda; Rhyzobius lophanthae; Rodolia cardinalis; Harmonia axyridis; Xylosandrus germanus; Caloptilia roscipennella; Caloptilia azaleella; Phyllocnistis citrella; Argyresthia thuiella; Cydalima perspectalis; Dasineura gleditchiae; Ceratitis capitata; Rhagoletis cingulata
and Drosophila suzukii. Some of them are novel and only recently introduced alien species whereas some of them are present for decades in Croatia but due to the lack of a comprehensive and regularly updated inventory of alien species they have not been listed before. This also makes this up-to-date list of alien phytophagous insects in Croatia valuable. Our results have shown that Asia is the main region of origin of alien insects established in Croatia (33 %), followed by North America (27 %). The trends are similar in other European countries and Europe in general. A rapid increase in the number of new alien species introduction per year in Croatia is noticeable from the years 2007–2012 (6.4 species/year) compared to 2002–2007 (1.8 species/year) (Figure 3). In Europe, an average of 17.5 new species of insects per year was recorded between 2000 and 2007, while this value was only 8.1 from 1950 to 1974. In Europe twice as many new insect species were observed per year on trees and shrubs during the period 2000–2007 (6.3 species) compared to 1960–1979 (3.4 species). The differences between the number of new alien species/year in Europe and Croatia are probably due to differences in sampling efforts, country surface, volume of traded goods etc but the rapidly increasing trend is obvious. More than 80 % of alien insect species in Croatia (57 % on agricultural lands and 28 % in parks and gardens) have been established in man-made habitats (Figure 4). Only 15 % of alien insect species in Croatia have established themselves in natural environments (forests and woodlands) which is almost the same percentage as on European level. It is a common observation that simple, disturbed, man-made habitats are more easily invaded by insects and other invaders than complex, undisturbed, natural habitats. Alien insects linked to human environments and activities (e.g. ornamental plants, bonsais, seeds, large potted trees, cut flowers, vegetables, fruits) are more likely to be carried by human transports into a new region than insects living in natural areas. A study has shown that bonsais carry a more diverse alien insect fauna then timber and that ornamental plants constitute "miniature" ecosystems which may host a large variety of insects that have the potential to damage other woody plants as well. Almost 90 % of alien invertebrates in Europe were introduced unintentionally through human activities, mostly as contaminants of a commodity. In Europe, ornamental plant trade contributes significantly more than forestry products to the invasion of alien forest insects. As interception data have not been analysed in this paper, a research of such data for alien insect species and trade volumes in horticultural plants in Croatia is strongly needed. There is a strong suspicion that ornamental plants are one of main pathways of introduction of alien insects to Croatia due to the increase of the imported volumes from year to year. Alien insect species are known for being serious pests worldwide and they can impact habitats which they invade in several ways. Alien insects can affect native biodiversity through direct actions: phytophagous insects feeding on plants, a predator or a parasitoid attacking host, an alien species hybridizing with a native species or indirect actions: vectoring diseases, competing for food, or sharing natural enemies with native species. This research has shown that dangerous pests that can cause direct economic costs have invaded and are spreading in Croatia (Table 1). Due to high percentage of alien insect on agricultural lands (outdoor and in glasshouses) in Croatia (Figure 4) the yield losses of alien insect species on agricultural crops in Croatia must be considerable. Alien insects can have serious negative impact on forests, woodlands and urban parks. Some potentially damaging forest and urban pests have already established themselves in Croatia. In countries where the percentage of forest cover is high (Croatia around 44 %) the damage from alien insects is expected to be considerable. Most introductions of alien insects are unintentional and unpredictable. Less than 20 % of the alien invertebrates in Europe have been intercepted before their arrival. There are several harmful phytophagous alien species approaching the borders of Croatia: Agrilus planipennis which could pose serious threat to Croatian lowland oak ecosystems, Anoplophora sp. which is spreading rapidly in Northern Italy. Some of the most polyphagous alien insect species, such as Drosophila suzukii, have only recently been discovered in Croatia. This study has also shown a time lag between arrival and first record of an alien species which has direct implications on successful eradication measures. Climate change may directly influence establishment and colonisation of alien insect species in new territories-from other continents to Europe and from warmer European regions of Europe further north. Global warming is likely to influence establishment and spread of alien insect species from subtropical and tropical areas (24 % found in Croatia) especially on the Mediterranean coast. One of the main factors, globalisation, will definitely influence the upward trend of introduction and spread of new alien species in Croatia which will negatively influence economy and ecosystems.
Key words: invasive species; alien species inventory; taxonomy; geographic origin; establishment rate; habitat; damage
MATOŠEVIĆ, Dinka ŠL
Ivana Pajač Živković