|CURRENT ISSUES IN CROATIAN FORESTRY|
Preparations are under way to formulate the new Forest Law, which will, hopefully, eliminate the continual decrease in the fee for non-market forest functions. At the time at which Nature responds with cataclysmic consequences to our indifference towards it and major global polluters refuse to protect it, the branch on which not only foresters but all of us are sitting is again being cut off. There are increased requests to exclude the coastal region from the current management policy, but at the same time no clear compensational financial bases are provided. Not even the record number of fires and the need to recover the damage in these very areas have brought us to our senses.
From the aspect of the Croatian Forestry Association, which unifies the Croatian forestry science, education and practice, we can only ascertain with regret that the relevant minister has not yet found time to discuss these hot issues with its representatives. Whether we like it nor not, it should be said that this is, among other things, one more indicator of the status of forestry within the relevant ministry. We had eagerly awaited positive changes after an almost five-year period of a misguided attitude to the forestry profession and the negligence towards the principles of sustainable management of forest resources, which we have already discussed in our Journal. Definitely, the Croatian government should decide, among other things, whether it expects classical „profit“ for the state budget from forestry or whether it supports forest management according to the principles of sustainable management. In the latter, profit is not measured by banknotes but by optimal regeneration, maximal increment, desirable biodiversity, naturalness and stability, all of which ensures the preservation of the forest ecosystem and of its multiple benefits. We have not seen any changes in the attitude towards non-market economy, either; on the contrary, some continue to demand the acquisition of wood assortments through guaranteed contracts rather than through market competition.
We do not know if anything is being done regarding the proclaimed restructuring and decentralisation of the company Croatian Forests Ltd. What we do see is that no invitation to a debate on the subject has had any effect, such as the text of the former minister Tarnaj, published in Forestry Journal 1-4/2017. In order to develop a new system it is necessary to start from the relatively neglected forest districts and district rangers, the most direct and responsible factors in forest management, rather than at the top management, which is constantly expanding in numbers. This requires a broader professional and social debate at the state level with the participation of independent experts/professionals and not representatives of different interest groups and insufficiently educated politicians. However, such a debate is missing, even though this issue concerns almost half of the land area of Croatia and the forest which the Constitution describes as a resource of particular interest for the Republic of Croatia. There are problems on a daily basis, including the recovery of the damage from ice break in Gorski Kotar, ash dieback, damage from the oak lace bug, bark beetles, reforestation of burnt areas, private forests, damage caused by climate change, employment of the young, personnel policy and political nepotism. We are capable of solving all these problems successfully because we have professional and infrastructural potential that very few professions can boast, but we should primarily eliminate the cadres who have reduced the profession to a current unenviable situation and who have protected themselves with contracts well in advance. Unfortunately, forestry is a profession in which mistakes in the management come to light only after several years, when it is too late to „cry over spilt milk“. This is the reason that many erroneously believe that forestry is currently in a good shape.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Sandra CRNKOVIĆ, Damir DRVODELIĆ, Sanja PERIĆ||UDK 630* 232.3 (001)||451|
|MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CONTAINER SEEDLINGS OF PEDUNCULATE OAK (Quercus robur L.) FROM THE SEED REGION OF GORNJA POSAVINA AND POKUPLJE (1.2.3.)|
Forests of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) management class in the Republic of Croatia cover an area of approximately 200,000 ha. In view of the size of the distribution range, the total growing stock amounting to over 48 million m³, the annual current increment of 1 million m³ and morphological differentiation, the study of pedunculate provenances is of exceptional importance. Clonal seed orchards were established with the purpose of achieving frequent yields, obtaining genetically valuable seed material and preserving the genetic variability, which lessens the possibility of local population disappearance caused by changed environmental conditions or the occurrence of new diseases and pests. Samples of seed material with a total of 49 different clones were collected from the 2015 yield in the „Plešćice“ clonal seed orchard of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and one-year-old container seedlings were grown under controlled conditions. Dry mass content of leaves, stems and roots was measured in the samples containing 5 seedlings of each clone. Their morphological differences and variability were determined and the clones whose seedlings showed poor potential for the use in biological forest regeneration were defined. Mean dry mass of roots lower than 2.0 g was found in the samples of 6 clones, while 4 of them showed an unfavourable ratio of dry matter of the above-ground part and dry matter of the root system, leading to the assumption that the seedlings of these samples might have potentially poor reception in the field, poor survival and initial growth.
Key words: Clonal seed orchard; seedlings; containers; dry biomass of seedlings; variability.
DRVODELIĆ, Damir ŠL
PERIĆ, Sanja ŠL
|Ceyhun GÖL, Hüseyin YILMAZ||UDK 630* 91 + 114 (001)||459|
|THE EFFECT OF LAND USE TYPE / LAND COVER AND ASPECT ON SOIL PROPERTIES AT THE GÖKDERE CATCHMENT IN NORTHWESTERN TURKEY|
Different studies have shown that the effects of land use conversion on soil properties are variable, so that more researches that focus on different ecological regions and land use types are required. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the effects of land use types in two aspects (north and south) on soil properties and (2) to examine the impact of tillage and grazing on hydrological soil properties. Primarily, three different main land use type /land cover (LUTLC) were selected in north and south facing slope to investigate the soil properties, namely, forest, grassland, and agricultural land. Soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 30 cm. For these soil samples, various soil properties such as texture, dry bulk density (BD), soil organic matter (SOM), soil pH, water stable aggregates (WSA) field capacity, wilting point, infiltration rate, and saturated hydraulic capacity (Ks) were analyzed. According to the results BD, WSA, SOM, Ks, and infiltration rate significantly change with LUTLC and aspect. Soil characteristics negatively affected by tillage practices and grazing are SOM, WSA, infiltration rate, Ks, and BD. Finally, the findings indicated that tillage and over grazing, in semi – arid region, effected adversely on soil properties, and that over grazing damaged the hydrological properties of surface soil.
Key words: catchment; infiltration; land use; organic matter; Turkey
|Neşe GÜLCI, Abdullah E. AKAY, Orhan ERDAŞ||UDK 630* 361 + 821 (001)||469|
|PRODUCTIVITY ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE TIMBER DEBARKING METHODS|
In Turkey, timber debarking stages are generally carried out by using axes. However, this method takes a lot of time and requires more work forces. In addition, since leaving residual trees with bark in stands increases the risk of insect damages, residual trees require quick barking process. In recent years, chainsaw mounted debarking tools have been widely used in debarking stages due to performing jobs quicker with less labor force. In this study, two different debarking methods including using axes and debarking tool were analyzed by considering operation productivity. The field studies were conducted in Brutian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) stand located in Bahçe Forest Enterprise Chief of Osmaniye Forest Enterprise Directorate in Adana Regional Forestry Directorate. As a result of study, the productivity of chainsaw mounted debarking tool was found to be five times higher than that of using axes for debarking. Thus, use of chainsaw mounted debarking tool is better alternative than use of axe in debarking activities, as it takes less time and minimize physical work load of the loggers.
Key words: Forest operations; debarking activity; chainsaw mounted debarking tool; debarking productivity
Abdullah E. AKAY
|Osman MUJEZINOVIĆ, Mirza DAUTBAŠIĆ, Ahmed MUJČINOVIĆ, Kenan ZAHIROVIĆ||UDK 630* 442 (001)||477|
|CHARACTERISTICS OF MISTLETOE SHRUBS (Viscum album subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollmann (1914)) ON BLACK PINE IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA|
Few years ago, the new pathogen, pine mistletoe was noticed on Austrian Pine and Scots Pine in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Pine forests mainly occur on xerothermic habitats. There are many adverse factors that influence the health of pines in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Pine mistletoe negatively affects the vitality of pine trees and makes them vulnerable to the emergence of secondary harmful factors. This study was aimed at determining the presence of mistletoe shrubs that infected pine trees, as well as the main features of those shrubs. The focus is on analyzing the impact of exposure on the size of mistletoe shrubs, and the length of Haustorium branching. The research covered a total of 120 trees of Austrian Pine and an assessment of the intensity of their infection by mistletoe was done. According to the results of the study, the issue of pine mistletoe has been present for a long time and has a tendency of increasing the intensity of infection. Due to the high intensity of infection a significant number of trees are dead or in process of drying.
Key words: Pinus nigra; mistletoe; haustorium; intensity of infection; chain of damage.
|Maja JURC, Dušan JURC||UDK 630* 453||485|
|THE FIRST RECORD AND THE BEGINNING THE SPREAD OF OAK LACE BUG, Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) (HETEROPTERA: TINGIDAE), IN SLOVENIA|
Here we report the discovery of Corythucha arcuata in Slovenia in autumn 2016. Egg shells and molts of oak lace bug were found on the fallen leaves of Quercus robur in an oak forest in the village of Zakot near Brežice in the southeastern part of Slovenia. C. arcuata most likely spread to Slovenia from Croatia, where it was previously reported from the park at Lužnica Castle near Zaprešić, 14 km from the find in Slovenia, or as a hitchhiker on rail traffic running along the northern edge of infested forest. Further spread of C. arcuata to Krakovo oak forest was detected in the beginning of July 2017.
Key words: invasive species; alien species; pedunculate oak; Quercus robur; Slovenia
|Ivana PAJAČ ŽIVKOVIĆ, Božena BARIĆ, Milorad ŠUBIĆ, Gabrijel SELJAK, Aleksandar MEŠIĆ||UDK 630* 453||489|
|FIRST RECORD OF ALIEN SPECIES Chymomyza amoena [Diptera, Drosophilidae] IN CROATIA|
The alien species Chymomyza amoena (Loew 1862) is recorded in Croatia for the first time. This phytophagous drosophilid native to North America was first discovered in Europe in 1975 in the former Czechoslovakia. C. amoena breeds in parasitized fruits and nuts damaged from primary pest attack. It is considered to be the principal drosophilid with this kind of developmental habits in both North America and Europe. The currently known host plants, species morphology and biology, the location of the first finding and possible ways of expanding in the territory of Croatia are briefly reviewed. This work provides new insights into distribution of C. amoena in Europe.
Key words: Diptera; Drosophilidae; invasive species; host plants; dispersal prognosis
Ivana PAJAČ ŽIVKOVIĆ
|Branko SITAŠ||UDK 630* 669||493|
|FINANCIAL IMPACT AND PROPORTION OF GENERAL EXPENDITURE IN WOOD ASSORTMENTS PRODUCTION IN FORESTS OWNED BY THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA|
The main purpose of this paper is to establish the structure of wood assortments production expenditure, the participation of overhead expenses in wood assortments production, the level of expenditure for biological forest regeneration works, the wood assortments revenue characteristics, as well as the results per product unit in forests in the ownership of Republic of Croatia. Final financial indicators will be shown per unit (kn/m3) in order to be able to compare and analyze data more efficiently. Good evaluation of financial results of wood assortments production is based on objective presentation and tracking of forest management revenue and expenditure.
In structure of direct wood assortments production expenditure, legally prescribed expenses for forest contribution participate with 6,2%, legally prescribed means for biological forest regeneration works participate with 5,6 %, means from Hrvatske šume d.o.o. management plan budget for forest regeneration works participate with 29,4%, while total expenditure of forest regeneration works participate with 35%. General expenses participate with 27% in total wood assortments production expenditure. General expenditure of forest management is within numbers of average expenditure of majority production subjects in Republic of Croatia. Financial results of wood assortments production demonstrate profit on the level of Hrvatske šume Ltd. in the amount of 64.26 kn/m3. The greatest profit makes Forest administration branch office Vinkovci at 186.20 kn/m 3, Forest administration branch office Nova Gradiška at 93.44 kn/m3, and Forest administration branch office Senj at 83.36 kn/m3. Aforementioned participation of expenditure of biological forest regeneration works, general expenses participation as well as financial results are good indicators in evaluation of forest management efficacy, as forests are natural resources and common goods of Republic of Croatia.
Better financial result in 2013 in comparison with previous years is for the most part achieved by the decrease of production costs owed to increased productivity of forest workers (new norms for felling, bucking and skidding work), and for the smaller part by increased revenue from wood assortments.
From the multiple-year overview of achieved wood assortments prices it can be concluded that there has been a decrease in prices in the last 10 years, which is contrary to the demand of wood assortments. Forming of the market prices of wood assortments would lead to increase of revenue and therefore to increase of economic benefits from forest management.
Processes of unifying and lowering general expenses in organizational units whose general expenses are above Hrvatske šume average would also contribute to the increase of financial effect of forest management.
All the aforementioned indicators show that the state forestry has improved forest management in the past 60 years by using its own resources, i.e. educated experts for state forest management and wood assortments production. At the same time, this confirms that integrated forest management provides plenty resources for quality regeneration and protection of forest, for forest contribution which is the income for local communities, for sustainable income and increase of wood stock as well as for improved living environment and protected biodiversity.
Key words: structure of production costs; overhead costs; biological forest regeneration
SITAŠ, Branko ŠL