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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 78     <-- 78 -->        PDF


(Contributed paper)


Institute of Dendrology and Körnik Arboretum, Polish Academy of Science, Poland.

The rapid decline of the area of natural forests communities and of stands
regenerated from local, indigenous seed results in a gradual impoverishment
of the gene pools of natural tree races. For these reasons, and in order to
utilize them for various economic and scientific purposes, natural forest populations
in Poland are being given considerable attention for several years.
Conservation schemes were started many years ago, they are constantly
expanded and presently there is intensive acitivity in this field in view of the
rapid changes that are taking place in nature as a result of man´s activity.
The protection of indigenous forest populations is being accomplished through
the establishment of: 1) National Parks, 2) Forest reserves, for the protection
of a) forest types and forest communities, b) trees at the limits of their
distributions and c) species under protection and disappearing. 3) Seed Stands
and 4) individual Plus Trees.

Since populations of forest trees in Poland are admired also by foresters
from many foreign countries, in particular this refers to the Polish larch, to
the spruce from Bialowieza and Istebna and to pine from north-east Poland,
the protection of our natural forest populations is of international interest as
well as being necessary for Polish forestry.


National Parks in Poland, which cover from a few thousand to about
twenty thousand hectars each, include a larger number of natural plant
associations typical for the given physiographic region. Within these parks are
also included considerable areas of the remnants of natural tree populations,
rare species of trees and shrubs, natural outliers of trees and also individual
plus trees.

The National Parks in Poland can be classified into three groups on the
basis of the method in which they are being managed:

Regeneration in these parks is natural only, and even fallen trees are not
being removed. To this group of parks belongs the Bialovieza National Park

ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 79     <-- 79 -->        PDF

(1), 5072 ha in area in which the following tree species deserve a special
montion: Pinus silvestris, Picea abies, Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus
excelsior, Tilia cordata, Betula verrucosa, B. pubescens and Quercus petraea,
where it reaches its eastern limit. The populations of different tree species in
this park represent the fullest available gene pools from the region of the
Podlaskie Forests.

Surrounding the Bialowieza National Parks there are large natural forest
areas which act as a barrier isolating the park from contamination by foreign
genes, and thereby preventing the deterioration of the genetic quality of these

In these parks protection depends on the maintainance of original relations
within plant associations, and of the indigenous tree populations in order to
obtain a harmony between the forest and the site.


Fig. 1. Distribution of National Parks and nature reserves with forest stands.

ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 80     <-- 80 -->        PDF

Within these parks there are many strict nature reserves. Wood is being
extracted in these parks only to the extent that such a treatment will help in
bringing the park to its original state. These silvicultural practices are necessary
because of the occurence within the limits of the park of populations of trees
that are not of native origin, whose ecological qualities and hereditary
characteristics are not in harmony with the environmental conditions of the
given area.

This phenomenon can be observed in the Tatra National Park (2) area
22,917 ha, in which towards the end of the XlXth century and in the beginning
of the XXth century plantations of spruce were made in the lower reaches of
the mountains from seed of alpine origin which proved ill adjusted to the
local site conditions.

Similarily in the Pieniny National Park several spruce stands are of
Austrian origin. This has caused to some extent an unfavourable change in
the secondary associations in this vegetation belt and an impoverishment of
the gene pool in the population of local trees. This type of management is
being practised in the following National Parks: Tara (22.917 ha), Pieniny (3)
(2528 ha), Babiagöra (4) (1709 ha), Ojcöw (5) (1331 ha) and Swiety Krzyz (6)
(6052 ha).

In the Tatra National Park a forest geneticist will find interesting high
elevation (1150—1450 m) spruce populations, sometimes with trees up to 400
years old, larger groups and single individuals of spruce at the lower elevations,
and Pinus cembra at higher elevations. In the Babiagöra National Park
indigenous populations of Picea abies, Abies alba and Acer pseudoplatanus are
being protected, which are of economic importance in the forestry of some
parts of the Carpathians and in the Beskid.

In the Swiety Krzyz National Park among the protected tree species a
special mention is necessary of the Polish larch and of fir, which reaches here
very considerable sizes. The forests of the Ojcöw and Pieniny National Parks
are not of particular interest economically, however they are very interesting
from a theoretical point of view since in these parks relict pine growing on
chalk can be found.


comprises plant communities that have been very considerably damaged
by the interference of man (Kampinos National Park (7), 22,311 ha, Wielkopolski
National Park (8). 5276 ha, Wolin National park (9), 4437. ha.

In view of the fact that local tree races have been much affected by the
introduction of foreign provenances, very much more wood is being extracted
from these parks than one would consider in normal forest management.

In these parks small strict nature reserves are established, and from them
seed of the local indigenous provenances is used for regeneration of other parts
of the park.

In the Kampinos and Wielkopolski National Parks there are small stands
of old pine, almost certainly of local origin, which represent populations of this
species from the regions of the great valleys.

In the Wolin National Park a local population of Fagus silvatica need to
be mentioned.


ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 81     <-- 81 -->        PDF

Pine and spruce forests (Vaccinio-Pinetum), and (Piceetum)

In these reserves old stands of pine and spruce, that are remnats of the

extensive ancient forests, are being protected and constitute interesting material

for genetic study.

Some reserves were made specially for the protection of different types of

coniferous forests. Most commonly the protected pine and spruce stands occur

as pure forests, however there are some where these species are mixed with


An interesting race of pine, with a narrow crown, has been placed under

protection as the »Maly Borek« reserve — (10) (90 ha) in the Augustöw Forest.

— In this reserve there are also excellent individuals of Betula verrucosa,
which characteristically have very clean boles.
One of the most valuable fragments of original pine forests is protected
in the »Czarnia« reserve (11) (88,7 ha), in the Kurpiowska Forest, Forest
District Myszyniec, where some pine specimens are more than 200 years old.

Also in the »Surowe« reserve 2 ha (12) of the same Forest District a pine
stand (about 250 years old) and a spruce stand (100—130 years old) are being

In the Zwierzyniec reserve (13) (41 ha) remnants of the Kurpiowska Forest
are being protected in the Forest District Slawki — a pine-spruce forest
(150—170 years old) with an admixture of other tree species (400 years
old oaks).

An interesting race of pine, characterised by intensive growth is being
protected in the »Pusta Wielka« reserve (14) (800 m elevation) in the Krošcienko
Forest District (2,6 ha).

A very well conserved Carpathian coniferous forest (Piceetum tatricum)
is being protected in the Gorce reserve (15) on the slopes of Turbacz Mt. and
in the »Romanka« reserve (16) in the Eastern Beskid, Forest District Jelešnia
(34 ha), in which many trees are up 100 years old.

The interesting, and internationally famous race of lower elevation spruce
is being protected in the »Butorza« (17) reserve of the Rycerka Forest District
and in Istebna (18) with an area of 30,7 ha.

In south-western Poland fine spruce stands mixed with beech are being
protected on an area of 10 ha in the »Morawa« reserve (19) of the Kotlina

Fir forests.

A fir forest (Abietetum polonicum) is being protected in the Swietokrzyskie
Mts. chiefly in the Swiety Krzyz National Park.

Particularly interesting populations of Abies alba mixed with beech are
being protected in the »Obrocz« reserve (20) of Central Roztocze, Forest District
Zwierzyniec (70,97 ha) on the north-eastern extremities of the species range.
In this reserve fir trees of considerable size, 46 m in ht. and 300 cm in diameter,
can be found.

One of the most valuable forest reserves was established on the »Bukova
Göra« (21), near Zamojski´s Zwierzyniec, in south-eastern Poland on the
loess soils.

ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 82     <-- 82 -->        PDF

On the lowest regions, on a sandy-gravel substratum, a pine forest developed,
a little higher a pine-fir forest, and on the top of the chalk hillocks a
fir-beech forest.

Fir in this reserve has exceptionally straight stems. Also in the Zwierzyniec
Forest District in the »Nart Czerkies« (22) reserve on an area of 480,5 ha fir
and spruce and beech are being protected. In the »Barnowiec« reserve Forest
District Nawoyowa (2,3 ha) (23) in the lower reaches of the mountains are
being protected a fir-beech forest with spruce.

The old Carpathian fir forest with beech and spruce is being protected in
»Uhryn« reserve (24) (92,2 ha) of the same Forest District.

c) Beech forests
Fagus silvatica, has in Poland its eastern limit of distribution. It occurs in
the lowland (association Melico — Fagetum) as well as in the mountains
(association Fagetum carpaticum) up to 1250 m elevation. Its populations are
characterised by various ecological characteristics, and as a result a few
reserves were made in order to protect local populations of this species. They
are: »Buczynowe Wawozy« (25) near Gryfino, Szczecin District, with an area
of 36 ha, where it is best preserved in the »Puszcza Bukowa«; »Kolowskie
Parowy« (24,4 ha) (26) where beech reaches 35 m; »Trawiasta Buczyna«
(79,6 ha) (27); and »Zrödliskowa Buczyna« (120,3 ha) (28) where beech grows
together with alder, all of these in the Szczecin District.
In this part of Poland beech reserves are also in »Bukove Zdroje« (207,9
ha) (28-a) and in »Radecin« (29) (46,3 ha) where straight beech stems reach
a height of 35—43,5 m.
In northern Poland a reserve was made in the Puck county, »Darzlubskie
Buki«, (27 ha) (30) which constitutes a remnant of the old Darzlubska Forest,
and in the Kartuzy county (31) the »Ostrzycki Las« reserve (17 ha) on the
slopes of a terminal morain.
In southern Poland there are several beech reserves. In Lower Silesia near
Luban Slaski there is the »Bukova Göra« reserve (25,4 ha) (32) where beech
grows together with sycamore, large-leaved lime, Norway maple and fir.
In a few reserves beech (association Fagetum carpaticum) is being protected
as remnant of the old Carpathian Forest, namely:
1) »Srubita« (33) in the Rycerka Forest District (near Istebna), where
beech grows with an admixture of spruce, fir and sycamore;
2) »Orkan« reserve (34) on the Turbach Mt. (319.2 ha) where fir and beech
reach an age of about 250 years;
3) »Losie« (35) reserve (2,13 ha) where beech grows at the lower elevations
with an admixture of fir.

d) Lime forests

Lime does not have much of a importance in forestry, however a few
reserves were made to protect its particularly fine stands. A few of these are
worth a special mentioning:

1. An interesting lime reserve called »Obrozyska« (36) with an area of
35,54 ha was made in the Muszyna Forest District in lowest elevations, where
some trees reach 32 m in height and 3,9 m in circumference.
2. The »Lipny D61« reserve (37) where a forest of primeval type, including
oak, hornbeam and lime is being protected in the Ksiaz Wielki Forest District.

ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 83     <-- 83 -->        PDF

3. In the »Lipöwka« reserve (38) which covers remnants of the old Niepolomicka
Forest, 23 ha in area, lime is to be found together with oak and
e) Carici-elongatae-Alnetum, Circaco-Alnetum, Fraxino-Ulmetum,
Querco-Carpinetum — community.

In a few reserves populations of ash and black alder, both having great
economic importance are being protected. The most important ones are the
»Starozyn« reserve (39) in the Plaska Forest District, in the Augustowska
Forest, (183 ha) where 80—120 year old stand of ash hornbeam and black alder
being protected and the »Kozi Rynek« (40) reserve, (146,6 ha) where the same
species are growing together with spruce.

In western Poland, in Wielkopolska a few reserves were made» Debina«

(41) (30,4 ha) in area in the Durowo forest District; »Sarnice« (42) (2,5 ha) in
the Czeszewo Forest District, a forest primeval in type with rich species
admixture including ash, alder, maple, sycamore, birch, oak and lime in the
same Forest District is »Lutynia« reserve (43,4 ha) (43) and in voivodeship
Lodz »Wolörka« reserve (44) (3,5 ha).
In »Jakubowo« reserve (45) (4,2 ha) in area where besides Quercus robur,
lime, maple and sycamore, also beech 30 m in height can be found and in
»Grad nad Mogielnica« reserve (46) 8,9 ha in area are being protected oak
with an admixture of hornbeam.

f) Mixed forests

Pino-Quercetum and Querco-Betuletum.

Reserves of mixed forests, 20 in number protect forest communities
concentrated mainly in the lowland and upland regions of the country.
There are relatively small forest fragments with an area of a few to 15

or so hectars each, in which often monumental trees are designated.
Some of these reserves characterise the associations of primeval forests.
Due to their diversity as regards species composition, age and tree size

they can also have an importance in the protection of economically valuable
forest populations.
Some of them are presented in Table I.

Table 1

Reserves of mixed forests

Name of No on Forest area Species
Reserve the map District ha composition

Borek 47 Dabrowa Zielona 64,0 pine, oak
Las Piwnicki 48 Torun 25,8 pine, oak
Lisiny Bodzechowskie 49 Ostrowiec 31,8 primeval forest
Lopuchöwko 50 Lopuchöwko 9,8 pine, oak
Ostrowy nad Braniča 51 Ruda 2,1 pine, oak
Spala 52 Spala 55,9 pine, oak, hornbeam
Sokole Göry 53 Zloty Potok 215,9 natural forest
Sosny Taborskie 54 Tabörz 76,85 pine-abt. 200 yrs,

oak, lime, hornbeam
Nad Brodnica 55 Ruda 4,7 pine, oak

ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 84     <-- 84 -->        PDF

These reserves are particularly interesting for these species of forest trees
which, as for example Picea abies, have on the territories of Poland 2 ranges
(a lowland one — northwestern regions, and a highland one), or when across
the country passes the eastern frontier of the species range (Quercus petraea,
Abies alba, Fagus silvatica).

Populations of these species occur most commonly in groups or as individuals
scattered as small pure stands or mixed with other species. These
reserves can have an importance for the study of tree genetics or silviculture.

Particularly many reserves were made for the protection of Abies alba,
which is known as a mountain species or even a high elevation species, where
as in our country it enters forest stands in the uplands of the central part of
the country.

For the protection of external stands of fir. the following reserves were made:
»Jodly Ostrzeszowskie« 18,96 ha (56) Forest District Kalisz; »Olbina« (57) Forest
District Brzeziny with an area of 16,5 ha; »Molenda« (58) Forest District
Rydzyny with an area of 143 ha, where fir grows together with oak, pine and
spruce; »Kobiele Wielkie« 63,9 ha (59) Forest District Kobiele Wielkie, where
fir aged 100 year is mixed with oak and a small quantity of other species;
»Jata« (60) Forest District Krynszczak, with an area of 335,2 ha, where the
age of trees is up to 140 years, and also in the same Forest District the »Topör«
reserve (61) 56,5 ha in area where fir reaches 120 years in age.

An extreme stand of fir is being protected in the »Jedlina« reserve 45,64
ha (62) of the Minsk Mazowiecki Forest District where the age of trees is as
much as 160 years.

For the protection of valuable external stands of spruce reserves were
made in »Okalewo« (63), Forest District Skrwilno with an area of 7 ha, where
the spruce occurs together with beech; in which a outlier of spruce outside its
continous range is being protected.

Reserves were also made for the protection of external stands of spruce in
»Studnica« 57,8 ha (64), Forest Districts Rychtal; »Niwa« (65) with an area
of 17,8 ha, near Kepno; »Krupa« (13,6 ha) (66) near Oströw Wielkopolski and
in the Kurpiowska Forest in the Forest District Myszyniec (67).

Populations of Fagus silvatica at the eastern extremity of the species range
are being protected in the Gdansk District »Buki Mierzei Wislanej« reserve
5,92 ha (68) in the Forest District Stegna; »Buki Mierzei Elbaskiej« 92,1 ha,
Forest Districts Elblag (69); in the Bydgoszcz District, »Jamy« reserve (70);
in the Olztyn District »Bukowy« reserve (71) with an area of 8,32 ha and
»Sadlowo« reserve 24,7 ha (72) which has the most extremal stands in the
north-eastern direction.

In the Poznan District, beech population are being protected in the Forest
Direction Drawa (73), Katy (74), — Sierakow (75) and in the Lodz District in
the Forest District Brzeziny (76).

Reserve of the most eastern stands of Quercus petraea were made in
»Lipiny« 24,5 ha (77), in The Bialowieza Forest where it grows together with

Q. robur and in the Lublin District »Bachus« in the Forest Districts Chelm
52,9 ha (78) and »Kozlowka« 41 ha (79) the latter being a most valuable reserve.

ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 85     <-- 85 -->        PDF

These reserves were primarily made for the protection of Taxus baccata
and the Polish larch, Larix europaea ssp. polonica.

One of the most interesting objects for the study of larch is the »Swinia
Göra« reserve 50,8 ha (80) in the Blizyn Forest District, where it grows in a
mixed forest with 200 years old fir, oak, hornbeam, sycamore and other
species. It is the most interesting forest reserve in the Polish lowlands.

Also fine trees of the Polish larch, 35 m in height can be found in the
»Ciechostowice« reserve 6 ha (81), Forest District Skarzysko, »Trebaczew
reserve« 164.9 ha (83) Forest District Rawa Mazowiecka and in the Modrzewina
reserve 336,9 ha (84) Forest District Gröjec, with an area of 418,8 ha where
the larch trees reach 150´—200 years. Very interesting natural mixed forest
with Polish larch are protected in the »Mroczköw reserve« 12 ha (85) in the
Forest District Blizyn.

Extreme stands of the Polish larch in the northern part of the country-
are being protected in the »Bobrowisko« reserve (3,4 ha) (86) Forest District
Konstancjewo (150—200 years) and in southern Poland in the »Modrzewie w
Kluszkowcach« 10,4 ha (87) Forest Districts Dukla and in Nowy Targ near
Czorsztyn (88).

In »Majdöw« 10,5 ha (82) Taxus baccata is protected.

The forest reserves cannot guarantee the protection of economically most
valuable population of forest trees. As a result the Ministry of Forestry and
Wood Industries, together with the Institute of Forest Research, the section
of Seed studies and Selection, have placed under protection 63 stands of pine
in the older age classes, which together cover an area of 706 ha. The selected
stands represent populations of pine, characteristic for different climatic regions
of the country, which have developed as a result of natural regeneration or
from plantings made out of local provenance. Up to the middle of the last
century regeneration from introduced seed was a rarity.

When selecting stands for protection the main criteria that were considered
were their health, growth rate expressed as the volume of standing trees, a
satisfactory form of the stems and crowns, and volume increment per
unit area.

On the adjoining map, with the help of circles the total areas of pine seed
stands in each climatic forest region is presented. As can be seen most of the
seed stands were selected in the Mazursko-Podlaska climatic region (northeastern
Poland) and in the Mazowiecko-Podlaska climatic region, that is in
these parts of the country where until now the greatest number of natural
pine forest can be found.

Selection of these seed stands constitutes a great achievement in the
preservation of valuable tree populations for future silviculture. Institute of
Forest Research continues the selection of seed stands within other tree species
in order to protect them for seed production and tree breeding research.

In the stands protected within the National Parks, Reserves and seed stands,
as well as in the stands under normal exploitation plus trees are being

ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 86     <-- 86 -->        PDF

selected. This work is being done already for several years by the Institute of
Dendrology and Körnik Arboretum of the Polish Academy of Science. So far
1144 trees have been selected, and they are presented in Table 2 according to
species within our major forest administrative units.

;: A fm«.*« 3Ađ % ^» ´* ´´ ´ -./´ ´ >l --1

pi * " ** ´ ´ X N { l * . i

Fig. 2. Distribution of pine seed stands presented cumulatively for each
climatic-forest region.

Presently plus trees are being sought in these parts of the country which
have little been searched to-date. In this work there is much cooperation
between the Institute of Dendrology and the employees of the Forest Administration,
who report prospective plus trees on small »survey cards« that are
being verified later by members of the Institute of Dendrology staff.

Accepted trees are then placed on an official plus tree registry, whereupon
such trees become protected against felling.

In the choice of plus trees, on the basis of phenotypic characters orriginally
Swedisch criteria were employed, however these had to be modified later,
particularly as regards the demands for crown form. At present the largest
number of selected trees are Pinus silvestris (337 trees), concentrated mainly in
the north-eastern part of Poland, on the Mazurskie Lake District and in the


ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 87     <-- 87 -->        PDF

Plus trees selected in Poland tabulated according to species and Forest Region.
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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 88     <-- 88 -->        PDF

Bialowieza forest, as well as in the Wroclaw District. Plus trees in the
Bialowieza Forest are characterised by a particularly impressive height. The
tallest reach 41,5 m in height and 62 cm in diameter. In the Forest District
Suprasl, in north-eastern Poland the tallest pine trees selected are 39,5 m in
height and 50 cm in diameter.

Similar dimensions are reached by trees selected in the Narewka Forest
District within the same part of the country.

Interesting pines were also selected in the Kotlina Klodzka in the mountains
of south-western Poland, where the trees reach 36 m in height and 42 cm in
diameter. They often grow mixed with spruce and manage to compete with it.

Also 210 spruce trees are selected, mainly in the Carpathians (127 trees),
in the Sudety Mts. (33 trees), and in the Bialowieza Forest (34 trees).

Particularly fine spruce trees were selected in the Forest District Istebna,
where tree height is sometimes as much as 52 m and diameter 67 cm, and in
the Forest District Rycerka with trees 54 m in height.

The tallest spruce in the Bialowieza Forest is 49 m and 80 cm in diameter
and in the Szczytno Slaskie in south-western Poland 44 m in height and 58 cm
in diameter.

In view of the fact that fir is not a very important forest forming species
in Poland not many trees of this species were selected, mainly in the
Carpathians, where the tallest grows in Istebna and reaches 50 m in height
and 75 cm in diameter.

A large number of plus trees were selected of the Polish larch from natural
stands and of the European larch from cultivation.

The tallest Polish larch trees selected grow in the Blizyn Forest District
with 38 m in height and 76 cm in diameter and 38 m in height and 53 cm
in diameter as well as in the Skarzysko Forest District where a specimen has
43 m in height and 106 cm in diameter.

In the Bystrzyca Klodzka (south-western Poland) the height of the
European larches (possibly Sudetan larches) is considerable and reaches 46 m
and 49 cm in diameter, — and in the Klodzko Forest District 45 m in height
and 48 cm in diameter. The tallest European larch tree selected by us from
cultivation in the lowlands grows in the Lopuchöwko Forest District, Poznan
District, and measures 42 m in height and 70 cm in diameter.

Of oak trees 63 were selected as plus trees, mainly in the Bialowieza
Forest and in the Poznan District. The tallest plus oak tree selected in the
Bialowieza Forest measures 43 m and has a diameter of 101 cm.

In all 32 ash trees were selected cut of which 21 come from the Bialowieza
Forest. The tallest specimen has 37 m in height and 130> cm in diameter.
Of beech trees there are 65 selected in all, 27 of which are from the
Gdansk District, 13 from Szczecin District and 15 from Bydgoszcz District.

The tallest of the selected beech trees grow in the Osno Forest District in
the Gdansk District, where one has 36 m in height and 42 cm in diameter,
and in Central Poland, Forest District Daleszyce in the Swietokrzyskie Mts.
where one has 37 m in height and 71 cm in diameter.

Also 114 alder plus trees were selected, mainly in the Forests of the
Bialystok District (71 trees)) in the Katowice District (24 trees) and in the
Kielce District (13 trees).

ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 89     <-- 89 -->        PDF

In the Bialowieza Forest the tallest tree has 37,5 m in height and 40 cm
in diameter and in Central Poland in the Julianka Forest District 34 m in
height and 61 cm in diameter.

This short review of the methods in which indigenous populations of forest
trees are being protected in Poland, as National Parks, nature reserves, seed
stands and plus trees, indicates the scope of activity in the field of nature
conservancy for the needs of the forest economy.

Sačuvanje autohtonih šumskih populacija provelo se u Poljskoj osnivanjem:

1. nacionalnih parkova; 2. šumskih rezervata u svrhu zaštite: a) šumskih tipova i
zajednica, b) stabala na granici njihova rasprostranjenja, c) vrsta pod zaštitom;
sjemenskih sastojina; 4. pojedinačnih plus stabala.
Nacionalni parkovi u Poljskoj mogu se klasificirati u tri grupe na osnovi metoda
kako se uzdržavaju. 1. Nacionalni parkovi kao striktno prirodni rezervati u kojima
je zabranjena bilo koja eksploatacija. U tu grupu spada Bialovieža nacionalni
park s površinom od 5.072 ha. 2. Nacionalni parkovi koji su djelomično zaštićeni.
U tim parkovima ovisi zaštita o održavanju prvobitnih odnosa unutar biljnih zajednica
i autohtonih populacija šumskog drveća kako bi se postigla harmonija između
šume i staništa. U takve parkove spadaju: Tatra (22.917 ha), Pieniny (2.528 ha),
Babiagöra (1.709 ha), Ojcöw (1.331 ha) i Swiety Krzyz (6.052 ha). 3. Pod trećom grupom
parkova podrazumijevaju se biljne zajednice koje su vrlo oštećene utjecajem
čovjeka (Kampinos 22.311 ha, Wielkopolski 5.276 ha, Wolin 4.437 ha).

Rezervati sa svrhom zaštite šumskih tipova i zajednica. Pod ovim vidom su zaštićene
šume bora i smrče, šume jele, šume breze, šume lipe, zajednice Carici-elongatae-
Alnetum, Circaco-Alnetum, Fraxino-Ulmetum i Querco-Carpinetum, mješovite
šume Pino-Quercetum i Querco-Betuletum.

Rezervati sa svrhom zaštite stabala na granici njihova rasprostranjenja. Za jelu
je ustanovljeno sedam rezervata, za smrču pet, za bukvu devet i za kitnjak tri.

Rezervati rijetkih primjeraka stabala. U navedenu grupu spada na prvom mjestu
zaštita Taxus baceata i Larix europaea ssp. polonica. Postoji osam rezervata
poljskog ariša.

Sjemenske sastojine bora. Pod zaštitu su stavljene 63 sastojine s ukupnom površinom
od 706 ha.

Plus stabla. Selekcija plus stabala provodi se putem Instituta za dendrologiju i
Kornik-Arboretuma Poljske Akademije nauka. Dosada je izluceno 1144 stabla, od
toga 337 stabala borova, 210 stabala smrče, 63 stabla hrasta, 32 stabla jasena, 65 stabala
bukve i 114 stabala johe.


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Przybylski T, Wilusz Z.: 1964, A report on the studies in the field of forest
genetics, Arboretum Körnickie r. IX.
Bialobok S., Pohl Z., Wilusz Z.: 1957—58, Wybor »drzew doborowych«
röznych gatunköw w niektorych krainach klimatyczno-lesnych, Arboretum
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and Tree Improvement, Vol. 1. FAO.
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>drze\v doborowych« do I960 r., Arboretum Körnickie r. VI.