DIGITALNA ARHIVA ŠUMARSKOG LISTA
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 ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/1966 str. 94     <-- 94 -->        PDF Question 5. What is the minimum number of replicates needed?Wright (1962) has studied the question of replicate number and comes upwith a table where he presents the number of replicates needed in order todetect the differences of a certain magnitude when the average range in plotmeans is known. The latter value can be calculated from comparing a fewrandomly selected plots within a uniform forest population. For the purposeof provenance studies it seems reasonable to specify that about 1/3 of the rangeof variation in plot means for a uniform stand should be detectable. If therange of variation is very great (low heritability), then the provenance is sosensitive to environmental differences that its value for practical purposes islow in view of the risk involved in matching it with the proper environmentalconditions. Small differences between provenances may be of theoretical interest,but in practice such statistical accuracy is not called for.If differences equal in magnitude to 1/3 of the range in plot means areconsidered as the minimal differences that are of practical interest, then 7replicates are sufficient to indicate a significance at 5´% level (Wright 1962).Thus 7 is considered to be the minimal number of replicates.Question 6. At what age is the neighbour effect severest?Johnsson (1963) believes that the neighbour effect is relatively unimportantin a plot of 36 or more trees since, coupled with randomization, there will beall sorts of neighbours at the different sides of the plot and at differentreplicates. He also points out that if a surround is being considered, one shoulduse the surround of the same progeny or provenance as the plot, since astandard (hold-over tree) would suppress some plots and improve others.Thus one could have a larger plot, and either consider the marginal treesto be a surround, or else include them in the plot, depending on whether thismakes much of a difference.It is likely that the neighbour effect is severest at the thicket stage whencompetition between the trees is at its culminating point (about 15 years).During that time the need for a surround may be greatest; later, however,after some improvement thinnings, all the trees in a plot could be used forthe description of a provenance.To summarize, the six questions posed above lead to the followingconclusions:1. The minimum number of trees that will describe a stand is 8.2. The minimum age at which productivity per unit area can be estimatedis 33 years.3. In order to reconstruct a population, a minimum of 40 trees are needed.4. The total area of the plantation should not exceed 5 hectares.5. The minimum number of replicates needed is 7.6. At the age of 15 years at least one row of surround trees is needed.To satisfy these minimal conditions, coupled with the need of maintainingsilvicultural treatments that are standard for Central Europe it is proposed touse the following design for provenance experiments with pine and spruce:A complete block design, with 8 replicates and 49 pine trees per plot plantedat a 0,60 X 1,20 m spacing and 36 spruce trees per plot planted at a 1,0 X 1,0m spacing.92