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ŠUMARSKI LIST 9-10/1985 str. 41     <-- 41 -->        PDF

On the Entering of Areal Polutants into Beech and Fir Forests on the Dinaric Range

of South-western Yugoslavia


A dieback of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) has begun in natural miscelaneous
beech-fir forests in Dinaric Mountains of Nortwest-Yugoslavia thirty years ago.
Contemporary are affected an Croatia aproximately over 100 000 ha. Long time
it was considered a cause of dieback was the impact of fir needle moth (Argyresthia
fundella F. R.). Analogous to other European contries might be assumed
the main stress factor are air pollutants. The dieback area is situated between
two industrial regions with large air contamination (s. Fig. 1) and therefore exposed
to remotely derived air pollutants. Further, it can be expected, the orographic
precipitation and windy, cloudy conditions contribute essentially to higher dry
and wet deposition. The purpose of this paper is to give first information about
an influence of acid preciptitation on soil chemistry and about quantity of heavy
mentals accumulated in organic layer of forest floor. 10 sites were selected in beech
and beech-fir stands in Lika and Gorski Kotar at different elevations and orographic
situations, the lowest at 350 m, the highest at 1230 m. The sample plots
3, 4 and 5 are located in imi&sion protected karst relief forms. 1 and 2 are
exposed to inland, 6—10 in subalpine region oriented to seaboard side. Input and
effects of pollutants were studied using the forest floor as a sink. It was made a
comparison of the stemblow-water influenced »microhabitat« beneath old beech
trees (with enriched pollutant concentrations) and the »maerohabitat« 2 od 3
m distant form trunk. Soil samples were collected at 10 micro and 10 macro habitats
at Of and Ah horizons within each plot. Soil ´reaction parameters, pH (H20)
and pH (KCl) were measured with a glas electrode. Concentrations of lead, cadmium,
zinc, copper, chrome and nickel, extracted in 3N HCl, were analysed
by flame atocim absorbtion spectophotometry. The results are represented in
Figs 3—18 and listed in Tables 1—2. Hydrogen ion concentration differences between
micro and macro habitats indicate a very strong inluence of acid depositions
on soil chemistry at some habitats (s. Figs. 3—6). The deposition pattern of
heavy meals, above all of lead, shows an increase tendency over an elevation

In subalpine region obtain heavy metals contents extraordinary high level.
Lead content for example, can be compared with concentrations of direclty contaminated
environments of highway rode sides. Generally exists a topographic
coincidence of dieback silver fir stands and habitats with strong influence of
acid deposition and high concentration of heavy metals.