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|ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/1988 str. 48 <-- 48 --> PDF|
Me eh. L. D. 1982: IUCN-SSc Wolf Specialist Group. Pages 327—333 in F. H.
Harrington and P. C. Paquet, ed. Wolves of the Horld. Perspectives of Behavior,
Ecology, and Conservation. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey.
Pimlott , D. H. (ed.). 1975: Wolves: Proceedings of First Working Meeting of
the Volf Specialists and the First International Conference on the Conservatiaon
of the Wolf. IUCN Publications New Series Supplementary Pajper
No. 43. 145 pp. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources, Morges, Switzerland.
Wolf mortality during 1945—86 in Gorski Kotar of Croatia, Yugoslavia
The offical records of forestry and hunting organizations were ecamined for
data pertaining to the harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) during 1945—86 in Gorski
Kotar of Croatia, Yugoslavia. During this 42-year period, 540 wolves (276
males, 245 females and 19 of unknown sex) were killed on the 1270 km- area of
Gorski Kotar. Total annual mortality ranged from 3 to 27 averaged nearly 13.
The causes of mortality included 301 (56%) by shooting, 177 (33%) by poisoning,
13 (2%,)t by trapping, and 49 (9%) by other means. Of the wolves killed by gunshot
(n = 301), 40% were taken by hunters shooting from elevated platforms at animals
coming to exposed baits, 32% (n = 95) were shot during accidental encounters,
18% (n = 55) involved a chase, and 10% (n = 30) resulted from hunters
waiting for a passing wolf. Poisoning was the principal cause of mortality
from 1945—60 and accounted for 7.8 wolves/year compared to 3.9 wolves/year by
gunshot. During 1961—72, 3.6 wolves/year were poisoned and 10.2 wolves´year
died of gunshot. Poisons were banned in 1972 and thereafter until 1986, only 0.6
wolves/year died as a result of the illegal use of poisons while shooting mortality
accounted for 8.3 wolves/year. Of all mortalities, 60% (n = 326t\ were >1
year of age and 40% (n = 214) were <1 year old. Wolf mortality was greatest
during the fall and winter months of October-March (n = 388; 72%) and least
during the spring and summer period of April-September (n = 153; 28%). Recording
mortalities and observations of free-roaming wolves have both declined
in recent years, and has prompted speculation that wolf numbers are decreasing
as a relust of excessive mortality and a declining food base. Currently, wolves
may be killed by anyone, by any means, at any time. This policy may need modificition
if the wolf is .to be retained as a viable member of the wildlife com
munity in Croatia and throughout Yugoslavia.