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ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2008 str. 42     <-- 42 -->        PDF

S. Matić, D. Delač: UZGOJNI ZAHVATI KAO MJERA POVEĆANJA VRIJEDNOSTI PRIVATNIH ŠUMA ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXII (2008), 121-146
Such a situation may be attributed to a number of factors, such as, for
example, the inexpert application of silvicultural treatments, the disintegration
of rural environments, property fragmentation, the owners’ social status, the
insecurity of private ownership, the length of the production cycle, insufficient
control and sanctioning, and finally, the disobeyance of legal regulations.

Some objective reasons for which these forests are difficult to manage are:

Fragmentation of property (the average size of a plot is preceded by two
zeros). Unsolved ownership-legal relationships, as well as an unstimulating,
slow and expensive system of solving ownership problems,

Disproportion between the cadastre of cultures and the real condition in
the field, and the disproportion between the cadastre and the land registry,

Management at the level of cadastre units prevents the application of more
complex management with forest resources,

Prejudices of forest owners towards pooling resources (Cooperatives) due
to negative experiences from the recent past,

Movement of the younger, more vital part of the population from rural into
urban areas.
Forest owners and forest owners’ associations should direct their activities
concerned with increasing forest quality toward the following fields, treatments
and activities:

Tending and regeneration treatments in selection forests with selection

Tending and regeneration treatments in regular high forests and coppices.

Tending and restocking those areas subject to natural succession of pioneer
species with valuable broadleaved and coniferous species.

Establishing cultures of valuable, fast-growing and marketable broadleaved
and coniferous species over abandoned grasslands and other areas.
Organizing timber harvesting and marketing, as well as utilization of timber
for bioenergy after the forests have been tended, established and regenerated.
Selection management is the most suitable method for fir forests or for
those forests in which the fir is the dominant species, such as, for example, mixed
forests of fir and beech, fir, beech and spruce, and fir and spruce.

The management goals in a selection forest are accomplished by selecting
and marking the trees to be cut. These management goals are: raise mixed selection
stands which will ensure good quality increment, stand stability and
plentiful natural new growth; use the productive site capacity to the maximum;
and achieve the highest production values.

Felling operations in a selection forest achieve multiple goals of tending
and regeneration, forming the selection structure, utilizing forests and maintaining
their hygiene. There are two groups of silvicultural procedures; tending
of the young generation – young growth and young forest, and selection,
which includes thinning and harvesting mature trees. All the procedures in a
selection forest are temporally and spatially concentrated, thus creating an
indelible whole. If any of the above activities is omitted, the structure of the
selection forest will be disrupted and its increment, regeneration and stability
will be affected.

Tree marking in a selection forest should always take account of the goals
for which this activity is undertaken. These goals are permanent regeneration,
stand tending, continuous maintenance of the selection structure, stand
utilization and maintenance of the sanitary-hygienic function.

In a normal selection forest with normal growing stock, a 10-year annual

increment is cut. Under normal circumstances, this is 25 % of the total gro