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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2008 str. 12     <-- 12 -->        PDF

oil) using first generation technologies, and biodiesel from lignocellulose
biomass and its residues in agriculture and forestry with the application of
second generation technologies. Moreover, a large number of cattle farms in
Croatia produce large quantities of organic residue (especially animal
manure) which could be usefully converted into biogas for both economic and
ecological reasons.

The quantity of biomass from agrocultures amounts to 1,239,550 (t) annually,
which is only 30 % of their value. The remaining 70 % of the biomass
should be left on agricultural land to allow organic matter in the soil to
regenerate naturally. The total equivalent value in crude oil from agricultural
areas is 428,992 t/annually.

Apart from biomass from agricultures, significant biomass quantities also
exist in cattle breeding. Animal manure and organic residue from cattle are
used for biofuel production – biogas. Annual quantities of overall animal
manure in Croatia amount to 381,480,000 t and represent 25 % of the existing
annual quantities. This biomass quantity (organic residue in husbandry) may
provide a total of 244,538 t of annual equivalent values of crude oil.

Present agricultural production may provide 673,530 t/annually of biofuels
from biomass (organic residue and waste) in the equivalent value of crude
oil without jeopardizing permanent natural regeneration of organic matter in
the soil.

Croatia possesses 2,688,687 ha of forests and forestland with 397,963,000 m


of growing stock which increments annually by 10,526,000 m3. The annual cut
or the prescribed cut is 6,564,000 m3 of gross volume. Of the total annual cut,
about 40 % or 2,625,600 of timber is used for processing, 20 % or 1,312,800 m3
for of fuelwood for energy and the remaining 40 % or 2,625,000 m3 is left in the
forest as waste.

Of this residue, 62.5 % or 1,641,000 m3 could be used for bioenergy production,
while 37 % or 984,000 m3 would remain in the forest as waste. If this
amount suitable for bioenergy is added to the quantity of 1,312,800 m3 of fuel-
wood, the total quantity of energy wood that could already be placed on the
energy market amounts to 2,953,800 m3, which is 45 % of the total annual cut.
This quantity could provide 600,000 t/annually of biofuel in the equivalent
value of crude oil.

Therefore, Croatia can produce an annual biofuel quantity of 1,273,539 t
from the existing reserves in agriculture and forestry. This amount is 2.8 times
higher than the quantity (452,325 t) which Croatia is obliged to use in traffic
instead of fossil fuels by 2030 (the EU Directive of 2003).

Taking into account realistic potential possibilities of biofuel production
in agriculture and forestry, we believe that a strategy on biomass use and biofuel
production should be developed in Croatia with the goal of achieving
economic and ecological bene.

Šumarski list br. 7–8, CXXXII (2008), 323-330