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ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2009 str. 19     <-- 19 -->        PDF

V.Topić, L. Butorac, Z. Đurđević, B. Kekelić, G. Jelić: UTJECAJ TIPAKONTEJNERANARAST I RAZVOJ ...Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXIII (2009), 121-134
each container during plant measurements. Measurements were carried out
successively every month on three occasions. Each time three plants were chosen
(maximal, medium and minimal height) from each container for morphologic
determination. Plant heights were measured with a ruler in cm and root
collars with a shubler. The weight of the aboveground and underground plant
part was measured with precise scales to two decimals. Scener STD 1600 and
Vin RHizo Pro software were used to determine overall length of all the root
parts by diameter degrees, as well as total volume, volume by diameter degrees,
the average root diameter and root area.

In the experimental plot of Podi, the block method was used to prepare the
soil and plant the seedlings in the soil undermined with a ripper, and so was
classical afforestation in the holes of 40 x 40 x 40 cm. A total of 826 plants
were planted in three separate blocks of 40 x 50 m and monitored. After planting
one-year-old seedlings of common cypress, the heights of all the planted
stock were measured annually over the period 2003 to 2008 and the survival
percentage was determined. A correlation-regression analysis was applied to
determine the quantitative grades of particular variables (container type,
planting method) on the growth and development of common cypress seedlings
in the nurseries and in the experimental plot. Container volume had a
strong and positive effect on the growth and development of one-year-old seedlings
of common cypress in the nursery (Table 1). Plants grown in larger-volume
containers (PVC 7/24) attained bigger heights (r2 = 0.981), bigger plant
weight (r2 = 0.985) and bigger root weight (r2 = 0.792), compared to plants
grown in smaller containers (B18), particularly in Bosnaplast 12 containers
(Figure 1).

Research showed that cypress seedlings developed differently not only in
different but also in the same container type. The first analysis of the root system
done four months after sowing showed very poor root growth of cypress
seedlings, especially of less developed ones, in all container types (Figure 2).
Only by the end of October and the beginning of November was root development
satisfactory in better developed plants grown in Bosnaplast 12 containers,
but not so in Bosnaplast 18 and PVC 7/24 containers. The root system
developed better and was richer in a PVC bag than in a B18 container, and
especially in a B12 container (Figure 4). During one vegetation, no spiraling
of the root system was observed in plants grown in these containers, or it was
very slight (Figures 3 and 5), whereas root development, particularly in
poorly developed plants, was not adequate. For this reason, seedlings of common
cypress should be kept in PVC 7/24 containers and in B18 containers for
more than one vegetation, but not longer than for two vegetations. Table 2
shows data on average heights of common cypress plants and their survival
percentages by container type and planting method in the first five years of research
in the experimental plot. According to the Table, at the end of the first
vegetation period, taking into account all container types and afforestation
methods, the survival of common cypress plants ranged from 28.0 % to 78.8
%. The best results were obtained in the soil undermined with a ripper and
planted with seedlings from PVC 7/24 containers (78.8 %), followed by plants
from B18 containers (62.5 %), and plants from B12 containers (61.3 %). In
the experimental plot the survival percentage of common cypress planted with
a classical method in dug holes was by 50 % lower than that of plants planted
in the ripped soil in all container types.

Regression analysis showed the dependence of plant survival percentage
and plant height in the plot on container type and planting method (Figures 7
and 8). Plants of common cypress growing in larger containers and undermined
soil attained bigger heights (r2 = 0.981) and bigger survival percentage
(r2 = 0,792) than those planted in holes.