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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2009 str. 54     <-- 54 -->        PDF


tion of pendunculate oak, narrow ash and black alder distinguishes itself by even more intense
extraction of the main tree species, so there are a great number of suppressed yet
perspective (+-) and dry (-) penduculate oak trees (picture 5). After simulated harvest, the
growth of mean tree was projected according to the tree species. Simultaneously with the
vitality evaluation, the competition among neighbouring dominant trees was being determined,
and the influence on lower perspective trees, primarily of the main species, was
evaluated. The simulated harvest gave the advantage to pendunculate oak and the predominant
and dominant trees of the secondary species were mainly removed. The structure
of the stand did not involve dry (-) and too suppressed trees (-+), which, with the previously
mentioned, gives the total simulated harvest (picture 6 and 7). This was the way the
main stand was gained. A growth projections of the mean tree was performed for the
main stand according to the tree species, and the structural elements were determined in
this way after five years. The growth projection for a single subassociation was gained
from samples of circumference and tree heights after total simulated harvest that could
more represented the regularly managed stands.

The height growth models during a period of time, for each of the three researched subassociations,
are gained by equalizing of tree heights samples according to the modified
Mihajlov function (formula 1) in aplication programme Statistica 6.0. The same way
were obtained circumference growth models. A portion of the explained variability (R2) is
the largest in height growth models after total simulated harvest, and it is considerably
lower in circumference growth models before the simulated harvest. Variability (S.D.) increases
with the age increase, and there is a greater circumference variability in relation
to the heights.

The current diameter and height increment of the pendunculate oak is the biggest in
subassociation with common hornbeam, while it is considerably lower and roughly equal
in correlation within the remaining subassociations. The competition of the main stand
trees is mostly manifested through the height increment in purpose of conquering the
local area for undisturbed crown development. For all tree species in research stands, the
height increment is mainly bigger, while the diameter increment is lower in relation to the
yield table (picture 13–15).

The basal areas and volume projections of researched mixed stands for the three age
groups after the simulated harvest are considerably different in relation to the mensuration
stand (picture 10–12). The differences in relation to the mensuration stand appear
due to equalization of data by Mihajlov’s growth function, because the biggest amount of
the diameter and height growth are realised within the first age group. Then, the volume
of died and unqualitative trees, since they were not adequately and in time cut, increases
mainly successively in relation to the first age group (table 2).

Different volume projections reflect on the current volume increment, which is considered
as accumulated iVt(a) and productive iVt(p). The accumulated current volume increment
is the volume difference of the main stand at the end and at the beginning of the
period (picture 16). The accumulated increment is under a strong influence of harvest, and
it can be positive, negative or equal to zero. For pendunculate oak as the main species, a
positive amount accumulates, while secondary species can also have negative amounts of
the accumulated increment. The production current volume increment is an volume increase
of the main stand until the next harvest. The productive increment depends mainly
on structural elements of the mean tree and regards to prominent vertical structure of the
mixed stand, on the number of trees and on giving the advantage to the main tree species
for the undisturbed development. The productive current volume increment for all mixedstands is considerably bigger in relation to the yield tables (Špiranec, 1975), and in the second
age group, the subassociations of the pendunculate oak and narrow ash are even
bigger by 182 % (picture 17). This points to a very high development potential of young
unmanaged mixed stands, which decreases with an increase in age as a consequence of
mortality, falling off increments and harvest. There is a question of how to preserve the developmental
potential in mixed stands. Silviculture interventions should be done in time in
order to enable trees supstitutions from lower to higher layers and, on the basis of a spatial
structure, an optimal diameter and height increment for the trees of the main stand.