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SUMMARY: Molecular and genetic analysis of Silver Fir (Abies albaMill.) was
carried out by acknowledged and verified biochemical markers. Analysed material is
from 10 natural populations out of which five populations is from eastern and five
from western Bosnia.
Conducted genetic analysis using 9 enzyme systems and 17 alozyme gene loci
with 44 alleles showed differences between western and eastern populations of Silver
Fir. Variability at some gene loci showed clinal character, although situation at the
filed is such that it is very difficult to make a right conclusion. However, some populations
from both groups showed certain degree of similarity for certain gene loci due
to hybrid zone of Silver Fir where two glacial refugia in western Bosnia are met.
Average number of alleles per loci ranged from 1,65 at Očevija to 2,17 at Oštrelj
population, while average number of genotypes per loci ranged from 2,00 at Očevija
to 2,88 at Glamoč population. The same ratio was in diversities (Vgem and Vp) while
biggest differentiation was in Glamoč population with 0,1984.
Some analysed populations in their genetic structure contain rare alleles what is
highly appreciated in later identification of same populations. Detailed analyses on
those populations with bigger sample should show right condition. That identification
of rare alleles would be used for identification of reproductive material, and during
conducting management measures.
Positive values of fixation index in analysed populations in relation to population
from central Europe showed that it is necessary to manage them in a more subtle
way, because in future they could lose much of their genetic potential for adaptation,
although they are not distant from their original refugium in the Balkan, while situation
with Apennine refugium is different due to distance. However, analysed populations
still have enough genetic variability, as observed in Glamoč population.
Methods with biochemical markers, which are used to determine genetic structure
in Silver Fir, gave good image on analysed populations as well as on entire distribution
of this species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Obtained precise results enable us to
recommend necessary measures for preserving genetic sources.
Obtained results will ensure good basis for control of reproductive material in Silver
Fir, as well as for conducting activities for its conservation using in situ and ex
situ methods. Thus, activities in regards to maintaining autochthonic genetic sources
should be directed to organisation of denser networks of gene banks, in situ and ex
situ, which will be necessary to maintain genetic diversity of populations of Silver Fir
having in mind that it is quite endangered in western Bosnia. Based on all that, we
can recommend that every ecological niche of Silver Fir should have its gene bank
with minimal number of necessary fertile units whose genetic structure was checked
in order to successfully preserve ecological and physiological characteristics.
This research encompasses genetic structure of Silver Fir in Bosnia and Herzegovina
and genetic regional division of this species can be done. Further attention
should be directed to distinction of provenances, and activities should be focused on
experiments with provenances with the purpose of experimental regional division by
analysing their ecological and physiological characteristics.