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ŠUMARSKI LIST 5-6/2010 str. 25     <-- 25 -->        PDF

J. Vukelić, A.Alegro, V. Šegota:ALTIMONTANSKO - SUBALPSKASMREKOVAŠUMAS OBRUBLJENIM ...Šumarski list br. 5–6, CXXXIV (2010), 211-228
% of the relevés. Spruce is completely prevalent in the tree layer and is frequently
accompanied by beech (often deformed and of poor vitality) and
mountain ash, while the bottom of the sinkholes and the lower positions are
reserved for fir. The shrub layer, in addition to the species from the tree layer,
contains another 16 species. The dominant species includeRubus idaeus,Vaccinium
myrtillusand Rosa pendulina. Rubus saxatilisis dominant in more
stony areas and Daphne mezereum in more temperate areas. The ground vegetation
contains 119 species, of which 48 participate with the 3rddegree and
more. Of 25 moss species, Dicranum scoparium, Polytrichum formosum, Ctenidium
molluscum, Tortella tortuosa and Isothecium alopecuroides occur in
over 40 % of the plots.

From the sociological standpoint, the dominant species are so-called “picetal”
ones, characteristic of spruce forests in the larger part of Europe.
Among them, Polystichum lonchitis, Luzula sylvatica, Veronica urticifolia,
Valeriana tripteris, Adenostyles alpina, Hieracium murorum, Oxalis acetosella,
Homogyne sylvestris,Gentiana asclepiadeaand others have the highest
participation. Together with mosses, there are 36 species in all. Other significantly
represented higher categories and lower units include as many as 39
species of the order FagetaliaPawl. 1928 (22 species with over 40 %). The allianceAdenostylionBr.-
Bl. 1925 and the order AdenostyletaliaG & J. Br.-Bl.
1931 are represented with 20 species, of which 9 with over 40 %. In terms of
participation, species of the order Erico-PinetaliaHorvat 1959,Cirsium erisithalesandCalamagrostis
variaare very important. Other categories contain
69 plant and moss species, of which 13 occur in over 40 % of the relevés.

The speciesLaserpitiumkrapfii and Campanula velebitica are characteristic
of the association,Knautia drymeia,Petasites albus,Mycelis muralisand
Mercurialis perennisfrom the Fagetaliaorder are differentiating species, whereas
Hypericum richerisubsp.grisebachii,Valeriana montana,Geranium sylvaticumandTrollius
europaeushave prominent diagnostic importance. The
association belongs to the suballianceVaccinio-PiceenionOberdorfer 1957,
although the participation of elements of the suballiance Abieti-Piceenion
Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1939 is somewhat higher. However, the synecology of
the subalpine belt, the complete dominance of spruce and the secondary role
of fir, as well as the presence of species of the subalpine belt, firmly indicate
the suballianceVaccinio-Piceenion. The abundance of differentiating species
of subalpine in relation to montane spruce forests include Valeriana montana,
Rubus saxatilis, Cirsium erisithales, Viola biflora, Polystichum lonchitis,
Trollius europaeus, and slightly lessSaxifraga rotundifolia.

According to the Code of Phytocoenological Nomenclature (Weber et al.
2000), relevé No. 5 in the fifth column of Table 1 is the nomenclatural type.

Table II analyzes the relationship of the association towards related spruce
subalpine associations in Croatia and in adjacent areas, ranging from the pre-
alpine region to the central Dinaric range. Column 1 contains an important
zonal association of the pre-alpine and alpine phytogeographic area of Slovenia
and south Austria (Adenostylo glabrae-PiceetumM. Wraber ex Zukrigl
1973 corr. Zupančič 1999), while column 2 presents the community from the
subalpine belt of the Dinaric phytogeographic area of Slovenia on carbonate
parent material (Lonicero caeruleae-PiceetumZupančič (1976)1999). Columns
3 and 4 present Horvat’s association ”Picetum subalpinum croaticum”,
mainly from western Croatia. Column 5 shows 6 relevés of the association
“Calamagrostio variae-Piceetum” (nom. invalid) from northern Velebit (Bertović,
1975), and column 6 presents 12 new relevés of the association Laserpitio
krapfii-Piceetum. Columns 7–9 feature subalpine spruce forests of Bosnia
and Herzegovina, two of which /column 7,Sorbo-PiceetumFukarek 1964, co