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ABSTRACT: The peterns of structure and certain parameters of dynamics
of forest vegetation have been studied along the vertical profile of the Crvanj
Mt. in Hercegovina (from Ulog to Zimomor, i.e. top of mountain Crvanj). The
following communities of the forest vegetation are present: Quercetum petraeae-
cerrisB. Jovanović (1960) 1979 subass.seslerietosum autumnalissubass.
nova hoc loco; Lathyro nigeri-Quercetum cerris nomen nov hoc loco
(Syn.:Quercetum cerris “mediterraneo-montanum”Lakušić et Kutleša 1977),
Aceri-Carpinetum orientalisBlečić et Lakušić 1966 /alliancesQuercion petraeae-
cerris[(Lakušić 1976) Lakušić et Jovanović 1980] Čarni et al. 2009
andCarpinion orientalisBlečić et Lakušić 1966/;Querco- Carpinetum betuli
Horvat 1938 emend Blečić 1958 subass.quercetosum cerrisStefanović 1964
aposeriosum foetidaefacies nov. hoc loco (alliance Erythronio-Carpinion
(Horvat 1958) Marinček in Mucina et al. 1993;Lathyro verni-Fagetum sylvaticaeRedžić
2007 nom. nov (Syn.:Fagetum moesiacae “montanum”Blečić et
Lakušić 1970), Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum sylvaticaeBlečić et Lakušić
1970 corr. Redžić & Barudanović hoc loco and Phyteumo spicatae-Fagetum
sylvaticaeBarudanović 2003 corr. Redžić & Barudanović hoc loco (alliance
Seslerio-Fagion sylvaticae nomen nov hoc loco (Syn.:Fagion moesiacaeBlečić
et Lakušić 1970). All communities are hemicryptophitic and phanerophtic,
with certain proportion of geophytes life form. The balkans, dinaric and SE
Europe floral elements are with high proportion and differentiate of those forest
communites from similar forest vegetation in other Dinaric Alps region.

Key words:Balkan, Crvanj Mt., Forest vegetation, Herzegovina,
Querco-Fagetea, Syntaxonomy

One of the basic priorities in implementation of Con-hes are recomanded as basic steps. By this action are envention
on biodiversity is protection and conservation ofcopassed species and habitats, as well as syntaxonomical
biodiversity on local, regional and global level. In thelevel of biodiversity, which is extremely important indigoal
of development of measures for susteinable mana-cator of ecological diversity of certain area (Lakušić
gement, the inventarisation, categorisation, i.e. researc-& al., 1978;Redžić,2007a; 2007b).

With objective of assessment of syntaxonomical di


Prof. dr. sci. Sulejman Redžić, corr. member of Academy of
Sciences andArts of Bosnia and Herzegovina

versity, original ecological and phytocoenological stu


Dr. sci. Senka Barudanović, docent of the Faculty of Science

dies are performed in current investigations.

University of Sarajevo
CEPRES – Centre of Ecology and Natural Resources, Faculty of

Although vegetation reserches in area of Bosnian
Science University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 33,

and Hercegovinian DinaricAlps have very long tradi

71 000 Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina

tion ( the begin of past century, Fukarek,1954) men-


tioned area is still relatively unexplored in vegetation

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S. Redžić, S. Barudanović: THE PETTERNS OF DYVERSITY OF FORESTVEGETATION OF THE CRVANJ ...Šumarski list br. 5–6, CXXXIV (2010), 261-274
sense.That fact emphasize the purpose of intensive and
complex phytocoenological investigations of each part
of area, which is characterised with high level of heterogenity
in ecological and geographycal sense.

One of the most complex unit of DinaricAlps in region
is Crvanj Mt., situated in northern part of Eastern

From phytogeographical point of view, on Crvanj
Mt. are hilly, mountain and subalpine vegetation belt
recognized. According to Lakušić(1969), the influence
of Moesian province is expressed in lower vegetation
belts, while in the upper mountain and subalpine
belt the influence of Illyrian province of Eurosibirianboreoamerican
region is predominant. The upper subalpine
and alpine belts belong to Highdinaric province
of Alpine-Highnordicregion.

The position of Crvanj Mt. in the system of Dinaric
Alps, relatively small distance (cca 75 km) from the sea,
geologic-pedological, orographical and hydrograp hical
conditions, in complex with other environmental factors,
have esential significance in defining of ecosystem
diversity on investigated area.

In past period that fact was reason for researches
done by numerous naturalists and florists. Crvanj Mt. is
explored by AmiBoue(in period 1836–1838); Otto
Blau(19–28. ofAugust 1871); JosefPantocsekand
ArminKnapp(Fukarek,1954); Pichler and Formanek
(Beck,1909, Beck&al., 1967); Adamović
(1889); K. Mal.(1889; 1923); Beck(1903–1916)
and Janchen(1906).The special contribution to the

floristic knowledge of Crvanj Mt. gave famous Swedish
botanist Svante Murbeck (Murbeck,1891).

However, the special attention to the problem of
phytocoenological diversity of Crvanj Mt. has not been
paid up to current investigations.Therefore, there is no
detailed published information on matter (except data
conteining general distribution of certain phytocoenoses,
obtained trough process of vegetation mapping).

Current investigations komprehend vegetation data,

i.e. structure of different phytocoenoses allong the
whole vertical profile.The results of investigations enclose
also the hilly, mountain and subalpine meadows
and pastures, rocky grasslands, alkaline peat bogs as
well as submountain summer pastures (Redžić&al.,
Here are presented results related to forest vegetation
of Crvanj Mt.
The general objectives of paper are:

–Scientific knowledge of structure (floristic composition)
and dynamics of prevalent forest phytocoenoses
on vertical profile Ulog – Zimomor;
–Phytocoenological analysis of forest communities
in the goal of susteinable planning, according to internationally
accepted metodology – ecosystem approach
(CBD, 1992),
–Defining of phytocoenoses and habitat types according
to EUNIS (M o s s & D a v i e s, 2002),
–Phytogeographycal and syndinamical analisys with
assessment of significance and dimension in relation
to regional biodiversity.
2. MATERIALAND METHODS – Materijal i metode
Phytoceonological and ecological vegetation reserches
along the vertical profile of Crvanj Mt. from Ulog
up to the top of mountain, were performed in different
aspect in period between 1983. and 1990.The methodology
of Braun-Blanguet(1964) has been entirely
applied.The data of life forms and floral elements have
been accepted afterOberdorfer(1983), and on endemic
taxa mostly after Hayek(1924–1933). The taxa
nomenclature has been given mostly after the Flora Europaea
(Tutin&al., 1964–1980).

Main characteristic of investigated area–
Geography and Topography:The Mt. Crvanj
morphostructure is situated in Eastern Herzegovina,
with geographical coordinates 43o and 43o 30’of the
north latitude and 18o and 18o 30’of east longitude
(Fig. 1). In the north it is bordered by valley of Neretva
river and eastern border goes along the line Ulog –
Obalj – Plužine. In the south it is bordered by Zalomka
river and in the west by Nevesinje field. Mt. Crvanj
settles the line north-northwest south southeast, wich
is not common direction recognized in most of Dinaric
Alps mountains.

Understanding, determination and defining of certain
phytocoenoses has been reconciled with the Code of
phytocenologycal nomenclature (Weber&al., 2000).

Determination of humidity and thermic character of
climate has been done afterGračanin(1950), and soil
nomenclature afterŠkorić&al. (1985).

Osnovne karakteristike istražvanog područja

Orography:According to morphology and hypsometry
Mt. Crvanj can be divided in western higher part,
and eastern lower part transforming into characteristic
plain.The higest peak is Zimomor (1920 m).The morfostructure
of Mt. Crvanj belongs to higher zone of the
high karst (Vidović,1978).

Hydrography:In hydrographic sense Crvanj Mt
can be divided in nothern part, with well developed
surface netting of branching directed toward Neretva
river; and southern part with very poor developed surface
netting /or brabching/ (Spahić,1984).

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S. Redžić, S. Barudanović: THE PETTERNS OF DYVERSITY OF FORESTVEGETATION OF THE CRVANJ ...Šumarski list br. 5–6, CXXXIV (2010), 261-274
Figure 1. Geographic position of investigated area Crvanj Mt.

Slika 1 Geografski položaj istraživanog područja planineCrvanj

In the unit of eastern part of Crvanj Mt., above
Ulog, a glacial lake Ulog (known also as Lake) is situated.
The water flows from lake down as Jezernica river
to Neretva.

Geology and Pedology:On Crvanj Mt. could be
found different types of geological foundation.On
route Ulog to the top of mountain (investigated profile)
marl and calcarenit is predominant, but also mixed formations
of marl-sandstone, limestone, calcarenit-marl
are present.

In the major part of central and high belts of Crvanj
Mt. are recognizedTriassic clastic scars, dolomite, limestone,
Jurassic marl-sandstone limestone with particle
of silicate, as well as massive and bank limestone
of Jurassic and Cretaceus age.

Over mentioned geological foundation are calcomelanosol
and calcocambisol, rendzine, acid calcocambisol,
district cambisols and rankers developed. Subalpine
in alpine vegetation belt is chsracterized by degradated
calcomelanosol and rendzine, especially in wind exposed
habitats where the stage of sirozem is predominant.
It is expanded over wide surfaces, becomming an essen

tial determinant of entire massive. On silicate geological
foundation are soils with humus layer often degradated
to the stage of silicate sirozem to.Ranker gradually traverse
to distric cambisols only in characteristic carst depressions.
In geological sense this area belongs to the
special structural and facial unit Crvanj – Morine with
the zone of Durmitor flysch (Moj čević&Tomić,
1982a, 1982b).

Ecoclimate:The Crvanj morphostructure builds
one natural barriers betweenAdriatic and continental
climate. However, the maritime influences are distinct.

Analyses of enclosed climatic diagram showes relatively
distinct maritime influences in relation to distribution
of rainfall (according to data from Gacko and
Nevesinje climatic stations). In Kalinovik area the coninental
influences are more distinct.

Humid periods are particularly present in spring and
autumn. Dray period is in July andAugust, in the middle
of vegetation season. According to data from all
mentioned stations, rainfall is minimal during this period
(for station Ulog recorded rainfall is only 35 mm
in July). In regard to humidity, the climate is perhumid

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S. Redžić, S. Barudanović: THE PETTERNS OF DYVERSITY OF FORESTVEGETATION OF THE CRVANJ ...Šumarski list br. 5–6, CXXXIV (2010), 261-274
(all stations). During the vegetation period climate isThe climate of lower parts of Crvanj Mt. is mainly
semiarid, arid and semihumid (Redžić&al., 2000).submontane, with more or less distinct maritime influence.
Kalinovik area is characterised by montane cli-

Assessed thermic character of climate is temperate
mate, with certain level of maritime influences.Toward

warm for stations Gacko and Nevesinje, but temperate
to the top of mountain, climate character is transformed

cold for station Kalinovik.Assessed thermic character
to typical mountain, and on highest peak has certain at-

during the vegetation period is warm to teperate warm.
tributes of mild alpine climate. Period of winter is tem-

Relative air humidity varies between 75 to 80 % du

perate cold, and summer temperate warm.

ring the year. During the vegetation period it is between
According to annual isothermic maps –The clima

58 to 76 %.The annual average of cloudiness is bet-
tic atlas of ex-SFRJ (Ak,1967), and temperature gra

ween 51 to 63 %.The lowest cloudiness is recorded dudient,
it has been shown that the air temperature of the

ring summer months.
highest part of Crvanj is about 2 oC.

According to Milosavljević(1973) investigated
area is considered as moderate bright, i.e. moderate
cloudy part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION – Rezultati rada i diskusija
Syntaxonomical review of forest vegetation– Sintaksonomski pregled šumske vegetacije
QUERCO-FAGETEABr. – Bl. & Vlieger inVlieger 1937
(=Quercetalia pubescentisBr. – Bl. /1931 n.nud./1932)
Quercion petraeae – cerris[(Lakušić 1976) Lakušić & Jovanović 1980] Čarni et al. 2009

Quercetum petraeae – cerrisB. Jovanović (1960)1979seslerietosum autumnalissubas. nova hoc loco

EUNIS code G1.7

FAGETALIA SYLVATICAEPawlowski in Pawłowski & al. 1928

Erythronio-Carpinion betuli(Horvat 1958) Marinček in Mucina et al. 1993
Querco – Carpinetum betuliHorvat 1938 emend. Blečić 1958 subas.quercetosum cerrisStefanović 1964
aposeriosum foetidaefacies nov hoc loco

EUNIS code G1.A/P-41.24

Seslerio-Fagion sylvaticaenomen nov hoc loco (Syn.:Fagion moesiacae
Blečić & Lakušić 1970; Incl.Fagenion moesiacae „montanum”B. Jovanović 1976)
Lathyro verni-Fagetum sylvaticaeRedžić 2007 nom. nov
(Syn.:Fagetum moesiacae montanumBlečić & Lakušić 1970)

EUNIS code G1.6/P-41.1B

Seslerio autumnalis-FagetumB. Jovanović 1976

EUNIS code G1.6/P-41.16

Phyteumo spicatae-FagetumBarudanović 2003
(Syn.:Aceri – Fagetum subalpinumFukarek & Stefanović 1958 emend. Fukarek1969)

EUNIS code G1.6/P-41.15
Review of forest phytocoenoses – Pregled šumskih fitocenoza

Class:QUERCO-FAGETEABr.-Bl. & Vlieger inVlieger 1937
Alliance:Quercion petraeae – cerris[(Lakušić 1976) Lakušić & Jovanović 1980]Čarni et al. 2009

Ass.:Quercetum petraeae – cerris B. Jovanović (1960) 1979seslerietosum autumnalis
subas. nova (Nomenclature type: Releve 1,Tab.1; Diagnostic species: Sesleria autumnalis,
Helleborus odorus, Lembotropis nigricans)

The separate vegetation belt is formed by communi-of one of mentioned species are found on certain aspect
ties of durmast andTurkey oak. It is found in the lowestand inclination. The species of High level of signifipart
of Crvanj, from 670 m altitude going to the Lake,cance, as diagnostic species, have:Fraxinus ornus, Vi-
at SE aspect with inclination cca 30°.burnum lantana, Sorbus torminalis, Quercus cerris,

Geological foundation on sites is silicate stone andAcer monspessulanum, Lembotropis nigricans, Silene
limestone in series with silicates. The soil is districnutans, Verbascum nigrum, Potentilla micrantha, Hellecambisol
where eroded humus–accumulative horizontborus multifidus, Lychnis coronaria, Sesleria autumnais
determined.lisand other (Tab. 1).

In the tree stratum durmast and Turkey oaks are
equally present.Although communities with domination

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S. Redžić, S. Barudanović: THE PETTERNS OF DYVERSITY OF FORESTVEGETATION OF THE CRVANJ ...Šumarski list br. 5–6, CXXXIV (2010), 261-274
Tab. 1. Forest vegetation of Crvanj mountain in the Hercegovina regionPlant CommunityQ.p-cQ-Cb qcS-FsL-FsP-F
Locality ( co-ordinates: Crvanj Mt Crvanj Mt. Crvanj Mt.Crvanj Mt.Crvanj Mt.
43 - 43 30 and 18 - 18 30)Ulog-JezeroUlog.- vertical profileHigh mount.-ZimomorZimomor
Altitude (m)680680670860860780780710720111012201500
Slope/Inclination (o)252520101025253530353525252020
Geological foundationSandstoneLimestoneDolomiteLimestoneLimestone
Type of soilDistric cambisolDistric camb. - C.c.RendzineRend.-C.melanosolC.melanosolSize of Releve (sqm)500500200500500500500500500500500500500200200
Coverage of vegetation (%)859595100100100100100100801008010075100
Height of the trees (m)A1515151515151515152020152066
Height of the scrubs (m) B3321,51,52332,52,52,5331,51,5
Number of species334637344233273327221622302117
Number of releve123456789101112131415
Floristic compositionChar.& Differ. species of the Ass.Quercetum petraeae-cerrisand All.Quercion petraeae-cerris /(Lakušić 1976) Lakušić et Jovanović 1980/Čarni et al. 2009AQuercus cerris L.
BSorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz+.1+.1+.1+.1.+.1.........5Smed P
BCrataegus monogyna Jacq. (-subatl)P
BFraxinus ornus L.
BQuercus cerris L.
BMalus sylvestris Miller+.1+.1+.1+.1...........4Euras (-smed)P
BLembotropis nigricans (L.) Gr.+.21.21.1............3Gemasskont-osmed P
BViburnum lantana L.+.1+.2...+.1.........3Smed P
COriganum vulgare L.+.1+.2+.2............3Euras-smedH, Ch
CSilene nutans L.+.21.21.2............3Euras(kont) (smed)H
CVerbascum nigrum L.+.1+.11.1............3EurassubozeanH
CPoa nemoralis L.+.21.21.2............3No-euras(circ)H
CHieracium cymosum L.+.11.11.1............3GemasskontH
CDorycnium herbaceum Vill.+.2+.2+.2............3Osmed-smedCh
BAcer monspessulanum L+.2+.2.............2Smed P
CHelleborus multifidus Vis..+.1+.1...........2BalcG(H)
CHelleborus purpurascens W.&K..+.1+.1............2E.C.Eur.G(H)
CIris graminea L...1.1...........1SmedeuropkontG(H)
CLychnis coronaria (L) Desr...+.1............1OsmedH
Char.& Differ.species of the Ass.Querco-Carpinetum betuliandAll Erythronio-Carpinion betuli ( Horvat 1958) Marinček in Mucina et al. 1993ACarpinus betulus L....
CAposeris foetida (L.) Less....2.31.1+.2+.2+.2.....+.2.6(O)pralpH
AAcer campestre L....1.11.1+.11.1........4Subatl-smedP
APyrus pyraster Burgds.....+.1+.11.1........3Smed (gemaskont)P
BCarpinus betulus L....1.21.2+.21.2........4GemasskontP
CAegopodium podagraria L....+.1+.1+.1+.1........4Euras(kont) (smed)H,G
CCruciata glabra (L.) Ehrend....+.1+.1+.1+.1........4Smed(gemasskont)H
CPrimula vulgaris Hudson...1.11.1+.1+.1........4Smed-atlH
CStellaria holostea L....1.21.1..........2Eurassubozean(-smed)Ch
CSanicula europea L....1.11.1..........2Subatl(-smed)H,C
CLuzula pilosa (L.) Willd....+.2+.2..........2No-eurassubozeanH
CFestuca heterophylla Lam....+.21.2..........2Smed-gemasskontH
CMelica nutans L....+.2+.2..........2No-euras(kont)H(G)
CGalium schultesi Vest......+.1+.1........2GemasskontG
CAsarum europaeum L......+.1+.1........2EuraskontH,G
CCarex sylvatica Hudson.....+.1+.2........2Subatl(-smed)H
Char.& Differ. species of the Ass.Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum sylvaticaeand All.Seslerio-Fagion sylvaticae(Syn.: Fagion moesiacaeBlečić et Lakušić 1970)
CLathyrus venetus (Miller) Woh......+.1.+.21.2......3S.E.&S.C.EurG(H)

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CEpipactis latifolia All........1.11.1....+.1.3Euras(subozean)-smedG
BChamaecytisus hirsutus (L:) Li........+.2+.2......2S.E.EurPn
BCotinus coggygria Scop........+.21.2......2OsmedP
BEvonimus verrucosus Scop........+.21.2......2ES.E.EurP
BOstrya carpinifolia Scop........+.21.2......2OsmedP
CConvallaria mayalis L........1.11.1......2Eurassubozean(no)G
CSolidago virgaurea L........1.1+.1......2Euras(subozean)-smedH
CSalvia glutinosa L........+.1+.1......2PralpH

Char.& Differ. species of the Ass.Lathyro verni-Fagetum sylvaticaeand All.Seslerio-Fagion sylvaticae

S. Redžić, S. Barudanović: THE PETTERNS OF DYVERSITY OF FORESTVEGETATION OF THE CRVANJ ...Šumarski list br. 5–6, CXXXIV (2010), 261-274
CCardamine bulbifera (L.) Cr....+.1.....1.1+.11.1+.1+.1+.17
BRhamnus fallax Boiss..........+.1+.1+.2+.21.21.26BalcP
CCardamine enneaphyllos (L.) Cr..........+.
BAcer pseudoplatanus L..........+.1+.1+.1+.1..4Subatl-smed(-pralp)P
CCaradamine bulbifera (L.) Cr....+.1.....1.1+.11.1+.1+.1+.17
CMelica uniflora Retz..........+.2+.21.21.2..4Subatl-(smed)H(G)
CGalium odoratum (L.) Scop..........+.2+.2+.21.2..4Eurassubozean-smedG
CPolygonatum multiflorum (L.) All..........+.11.1+.11.1..4Eurassubozean(-smed)G
BEvonymus latifolia (L.) All..........+.2+.2....2Pralp(-smed)P
CGalanthus nivalis L..........
CPolygonatum verticillatum (L.) All...........+.1.+.1..2Pralp-(nosubatl9G
CIsopyrum thalictroides L............2.21.1..2Euras(-smed)G
CHordelymus europaeus (L.)C.O............+.21.2..2Gemasskont-smedH
CCorydalis cava (L.) Schw.&K..........+.1.+.1...2GemaskontG
CScilla bifolia L..........+.1.+.1...2Smed(-gemasskont)G
CArum maculatum L............+.1+.1..2Subatl(-smed)G
CPolystichum lobatum (Hudson) Ch............+.21.2..2EurassubozeanH
CCalamintha sylvatica Bromf............+.1+.1..2Smed(-subatl)H
CLilium martagon L.............+.1..1Euras(kont)(-smed)G

Char.& Differ. species of the Ass.Phyteumo spicatae-Fagetumand All.

Seslerio-Fagion sylvaticae

BLonicera alpigena L............+.1+.2+.23Alp-pralpP
CCystopteris montana (Lam.) Desv..............+.2+.22Arctalp(subozean)circG(H)
CLuzula sylvatica (Hudson) Gaudin.............+.2+.22Subatl(-smed)H
CAdenostyls alliariae (Gouan) A. Kerner.............+.2+.22Alp-pralpH
CActea spicata L..............+.2+.22(No)-eurassubozeanG
CGeranium macrorhizum L..............+.1+.22OpralpH(Ch)

The species of the ordersQuercetalia pubescentisKlika 1933 1932 andFagetalia sylvaticaePawl. In Pawl. et al. 1928 and classQuerco-FageteaBr.-Bl. & VliegerinVlieger1937

AFagus sylvatica L....+.11.1+.
BFagus sylvatica L....+.2+.
CAremonia egrimonioides (L.) DC+.1+.1+.
CViola reichenbachiana Jo. ex Bo....+.11.1+.1+.1...+.1+.1+.11.1+.1+.110Subatl-smedH
BRosa arvensis Hud.+.21.21.2+.2+.2+.2+.1+.21.2......9Subatl-smedP
CAnemone nemorosa L....1.2+.1+.1+.1..+.2+.21.1+.1+.2.9EurassubozeanG
AQuercus petraea (Matt.) Liebel.
CHelleborus odorus Waldrt.& Kit.+.
CFragaria vesca L.+.1+.1+.1+.11.1..+.1+.2......8No-euras(subozean)H
CSesleria autumnalis (Scop.)
CPotentilla micrantha Ram. In DC.+.11.11.1+.1+.1+.1...+.1.....7SmedH
CClinopodium vulgare L.+.11.11.1.+.2+.
BQuercus petraea (Matt.) Liebel.
BPyrus pyraster Burgds.+.1+.1+.1+.1+.1+.1.........6Smed(gemasskont)P
CLathyrus niger (L.) Bernh.1.1+.1+.1+.1+.1.+.1........6(O)smed-gemasskontG(H)
CVeronica chamaedrys L.+.21.11.1+.11.1.......+.2..6No-eurassubozeanCh
CDactylis hispanica Rothm+.21.21.2.+.2.+.2..+.2.....6Med-smedH
CEuphorbia amygdaloides L.+.1..+.1+.1.+.1+.1+.1......6Subatl-smedCh
BAcer campestre L.....+.2+.1+.11.1+.1+.1.....6Subatl-smedH
CAsplenium adiantum-nigrum L.+.21.2+.2.........+.2.+.25Subatl-smedH

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BCornus mas L.....+.1+.1.+.2+.2......4OsmedP
AAcer pseudoplatanus L.........+.2+.1..+.1+.1..4Subatl-smed(pralp)P
CHieracium prenanthoides Vill..+.1..+.1..+.1+.1......4(Pralp)alp-arct(-no)H
CPeucedanum oreoselinum (L.) Mo..+.2+.1.+.1...+.1......4
CCampanula trachelium L..+.1.....+.1+.1+.1.....4Eurassubozean-smedH
CMelittis melissophyllum L.....+.1..+.11.1.+.1...4SmedH
BClematis vitalba L........+.2+.2+.2.....3Smed-subatl(circ)P
BCorylus avellana L........+.21.2+.2.....3EurassubozeanP
BCornus sanguinea L....+.1...+.1+.2......3Smed(-subatl)P
CHieracium murorum Hudson+.1+.1.....+.1.......3No-eurassubozeanH
CGeum urbanum L.....+.1.......+.1+.1.3Eurassubozean-smedH
CSymphytum tuberosum L......+.2+.2.....+.2..3Gemasskont-smedG
CArabis hirsuta (L.) Scop..+.1+.1............2Euras-smed,circH(T)
CLathyrus venetus (L.) Bernh....+.1.....+.1....2GemasskontG(H)
CMycelis muralis (L.) Dumort.....+.1.....+.1...2Subatl-smedH
CEpilobium montanum L.............+.1+.1.2(no)eurassubozeanH(Ch)
CViola alba Besser+.1..............1Med-smedH
BPrunus avium L..+.1.............1Subatl-smedP
BAcer platanoides L.....+.1..........1GemasskontP
BViburnum opulus L......+.1.........1Euras(subozean)P
BLonicera xylosteum L........+.2.......1Subatl-smedP
CMelampyrum nemorosum L........+.2.......1Gemasskont(-smed)H
CLamiastrum galeobdolon (L.) Eh.&P.............+.2..1GemasskontCh
CAjuga reptans L.............+.1..1Subatl-smedH
CCrocus vernus (L.) Hill.............+.1.1Opralp(-smed)G

The otherspecies:

CAsplenium trichomanes L.+.2+.2+.2.+.1.......+.2..5(No)euras-smed,circH
CPrunella vulgaris L..+.
CPrunella laciniata (L.) L.+.2+.1+.1............3SmedH
CThymus serpyllum L.+.21.21.2............3EuropkontCh
CAchillea nobilis L..+.1+.1............2Smed-euraskontH
CTrifolium rubens L..+.1+.1............2Gemasskont-smedH
DCtenidium molluscum (Hedw.) Mitt......1.31.3........2CircumborCh
CAstragalus glycyphyllos L........+.2+.2......2Eurassubozean-smedH
CUrtica dioica L..............+.2+.22No-eurasH
CAsperula purpurea (L.) Ehrend..+.2.............1BalcH
CLotus corniculatus L. f. ciliatus Koch.+.1.............1Eurassubozean(-smed)H
CHypericum perforatum L..+.1.............1Eurassubozean-smedH
CSedum acre L..+.1.............1

CCerastium caespitosum Gilib..+.1.............1No-euras(subozean)Ch(T)
CHelianthemum rupifragum ..+.2............1DinCh
CPrimula columnae Ten....+.1...........1S.E.Eur.H
CVicia sepium L....+.1...........1EurassubozeanH
CLapsana communis L....+.1..........1Eurassubozean-smedT(H)
CViola hirta L.....+.1..........1Euras-smedH
CCruciata laevipes Opiz.....+.2.........1Smed-eurassubozeanH
CAstrantia major L.......+.1........1(O)pralpH
CLathyrus pratensis L........+.1.......1Euras(subozean)-smedH
CGeranium robertianum L.............+.1..1Eurassubozean-smedH(T)
CVeratrum album L..............+.1.1PralpH

Abbreviations:A-The species of the tree stratum; B -The species of the scrub stratumhrub stratum; C -The species of harbs stratum; D -The mosses stratum

Q.p-c- Quercetum petraeae-cerris; Q-Cb qc - Querco-Carpinetum bertuli quercetosum cerris; L-Fm- Lathyro verni-Fagetum sylvaticaeS-F.s. - Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum sylvaticae;P-F.s. - Phyteumo spicatae-Fagetum sylvaticae

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The community Quercetum petraeae-cerrisis one
special phytogeographycal feature found on North
Montenegro mountains and in area of continental Dinaric
Alps(Lakušić,1987;Čarnietal., 2009).

By floristic composition mentioned community
showes certain level of similarity with Quercetum cerris
„montanum” B. Jovanović (1960) 1979 from the
moesian province (Jovanović, 1980), and to termophilic
variants of the communityQuercetum “ montanum
illy ricum”(Stefanović&Popović,1961,Stefa nović,
1964; 1984;Redžić&Golić,1984;Red žić,

Going to the south and southeast direction the associationQuercetum
petraeae – cerrisis banded with the
associationLathyro nigeri-Quercetum cerris nomen nov
hoc loco(Syn.:Quercetum cerris „mediterraneo-montanum”
Lakušić & Kutleša 1977), accomplishing an


ecological continuum. In northwest is linked with the associationOrno
– Quercetum cerrisStefanović 1968.

The degradation of durmast andTurkey oak forestes
directs to development of various progradation – degradation

One of the most prominent is community Aceri –
Carpinetum orientalisBlečić & Lakušić 1966, which inhabits
shallow soils and warmer habitats.This association
is particularly well developed in area toward river
Neretva valley, and on the lower positions of Crvanj Mt.

On colder habitats the asssociationQuercetum petraeae
– cerrisaccomplishes syndinamical bond with
certain variants of the associationSeslerio autumnalis

–Ostryetum carpinifoliaeHorvat & Horvatić 1958.On
colder habitats, on dolomite geological foundation, it is
bonded with thermophilic beech forests Seslerio autumnalis
– FagetumBlečić i & Lakušić 1970.
Pawlowski in Pawlowski & al. 1928

Alliance:Erythronio-Carpinion betuli(Horvat 1958) Marinček in Mucina et al. 1993
Ass.:Querco-Carpinetum betuliHorvat 1938 emend Blečić 1958 subass.quercetosum cerrisStefanović
1964aposeriosum foetidaefacies nov.(Nomenclature type: Releve 4, Tab.1; Diagnostic species:

Aposeris foetida, Primula vulgaris)

The southern border of distribution ofQuerco-Carpinetum
betuliassotiation is on Crvanj Mt. It is developed
within durmast andTurkey oak forest zone.

The characteristic species of association are:Quercus
petraea, Carpinus betulus, Acer campestre, Pyrus
pyraster, Primula vulgaris, Stellaria holostea, Melica
nutans, Lathyrus venetus, Sanicula europaea andAposeris

Species of wider ecological/coenological range of
tolerance, but important for defining of coenology status,
are:Aremonia agrimonioides, Helleborus odorus,

Viola reichenbachiana, Anemone nemorosa, Veronica
chamaedrysand other (Tab. 1).

The high level of similarity the association achieves
with subassociationQ.-C.b. quercetosum cerrisStefano
vić 1961 (Stefanović,1964; Stefanović&
Ma nuševa,1971;Horvat&al., 1974;Redžić&
al., 1986;Lakušić&al., 1987) especially with its facies
aposeriosum foetidae. The syndinamical link of
oak-hornbeam forests with mountain beech forests in
this area has been accomplished through this facies.

Alliance:Seslerio-Fagion sylvaticaeNomen nov hoc loco

(Syn.:Fagion moesiacaeBlečić & Lakušić)

Ass.:Lathyro verni-Fagetum sylvaticaeRedžić 2007

(Ass.:Fagetum moesiacae montanumBlečić & Lakušić 1970)

The widest vegetation belt on vertical profile of Crvanj
Mt. is build of complex of beech communities.

The very large area is covered by specific variant of
mountain beech forest wich is developed on limestone
foundation or silicate in series with limestone.Type of
soil on habitats of mentioned community is calcocambisol,
acified calcocambisol or calcomelanosol, which
is recorded on more sloping terrain. Remarkable influence
of sub-Mediterranean climate caused significant
shifting of community towards higher altitudes, up to
1400 (1500) m on Crvanj.

In phytogeographycal sense, development of mentioned
comminity associates Crvanj Mt. with group of
northwestern and central DinaricAlps.

Predominant role in community has speciesFagus
sylvatica, somewhere accompanied by Acer pseudoplatanus.
Next group of species has high valuable role
in coenodiagnostic:Euonymus latifolius, Rhamnus fallax,
Cardamine bulbifera, Galium odoratum, Polygonatum
multiflorum, P. verticillatum, Galanthus nivalis,
Scilla bifolia, Hordelymus europaeus, Corydalis cava

and other (Tab. 1).
The typical beech-fir forests structure (developed on
adjacent mountain Visočica, Bjelašnica (Fukarek&
Stefanović,1958; Fukarek,1979, Lakušić&
al., 1984; 1987)Treskavica (Mišić,1984) in the north
and Gatačka Bjelašnica in the southeast) are not recorded
on investigated profile Ulog-Jezero-Zimomor.

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Abies albais not or it is very rarely present in beech
forest here.

However, the presence of Rhamnus fallax, Lonicera
alpigena, Galium odoratum, Polystichum lobatum, Cardamine
enneaphyllos, Polygonatum verticillatumand
Lilium martagonspecies indicates development of certain
beech-fir forests variant, or forests of beech and bu-

Ass.:Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum sylvaticae

The termophylic community of beech and autumn
bluegrass (Sesleria autumnalis) is developed within
belt of mountain and high mountains beech forests, but
on warmer habitats, dolomite geological foundation
and rendzine as type of soil. Habitats of mentioned
community are situated on south aspect and terrain
with inclination of 35o.

In floristic composition of community the next
group of species has significant diagnostic and indicator
value:Sesleria autumnalis, Ostrya carpinifolia, Cotinus
coggigria, Chamaecytisus hirsutus, Epipactis
latifolia, Solidago virgaaurea, Canvallaria mayalis
andLathyrus venetus(Tab. 1).

The community of autumn bleugrass with beech,
within area with Illyrian climate is developed both in
sub-Mediterranean belt (Horvat,1962; Trinaj s tić,
2008), and deeply in continental hinterland, what
is more often orographically and pedologically caused

Usualy, mentioned community is affiliated to littoral
and south part of Central Dinaric mountains (Lakušić,
1987,Lakušić&al., 1984, 1987). Going to

Ass.:Phyteumo spicatae-Fagetumsylvaticae

ckthorn (Rhamno-FagetumFukarek 1969), which are
more common for group of south DinaricAlps (Fukarek,
1979). One of possible reason forAbies albaabsence
could be intensive cutting in the past period, when
fir is entirely but artificially removed from investigated
habitats.According to literature sources, fir was distinctively
more presented in this area (Murbeck,1891).

Blečić & Lakušić 1970 corr. hoc loco

group of continental and northwestern Dinaric Alps,
the community constitute the continuum to theSeslerio
autumnalis-Fagetum(Horvat 1938) Horvat & al. 1974,
which is developed in a few variants.

One of known community variants isSeslerio autumnalis-
Fagetum(Horvat 1950) M. Wraber (1958) 1960,
developed from the sub-Mediterranean to the subalpine
area of Slovenia, and recently diffrentiated in several
syntaxonomical categories (Dakskobler,1991).

The thermophilic community of beech with autumn
bluegrass in comparision with typical association Seslerio-
Fagetum sylvaticae, recorded in south and southeastern
part of central DinaricAlps (Blečić,1958;
1989) is rather poor in endemic species.

SpeciesChamaecytisus tommasinii, Campanula lingulata,
Dianthus sylvestris, Laserpitium marginatum,
Trifolium pignattii, Crocus tommasinianus, Dioscorea
balcanica, Daphne oleoidesand other endemic species
are absent. By this finding, researched community is
more similar toSeslerio-Fagetumin floristic sense.

Barudanović 2003
(=Aceri-Fagetum subalpinumFukarek & Stefanović 1958 emend Fukarek 1969)

The community of maple with subalpine beech is
usualy recorded on mountains of northwestern and
continental group of Dinaric Alps (Horvat,1962;
Fukarek,1979;Redžić&al., 1984;Barudanović,

In the souheast group of DinaricAlps it is altered
with communityAceri visianii-Fagetum sylvaticaeFukarek
1969 (Blečić 1958 – Syn.:Fagetum subalpinum
aceretosum visianiiBlečić 1958).

In the past period community of subalpine beech on
Crvanj Mt. suffered extremely high level of antopogenic
influence with purpose of subalpine pastures area enlargement.

The floristic analysis of researched sites situated on
limestone foundation and calcomelanosol type of soil, at
the altitude between 1500 an 1700 m, indicates the presence
of this association, but in extremely poor form.

In the tree stratum, high cca 6 m, beech is predominant,
but sycamore maple is also present. In schrub

stratum Lonicera alpigenaand Rhamnus fallax are
only recorded species.

Characteristic and differential species of Aceri-Fagetum
association here are: Cystopteris montana, Luzula
sylvatica, Adenostyles alliariae, Actea spicata,
Geranium macrorhizumandCardamine enneaphyllos.
Important diagnostic species of the order and class are:
Viola reichenbachiana, Aremonia agrimonioides, Anemone
nemorosa, Crocus vernus, Geum urbanumand
other (Tab. 1).

The belt of mountain pine on researched profile of
Crvanj Mt. is completely absent.Terminal forest border
is built up of subalpine beech community. Mountain
pine community was developed on this profile
(Murbeck,1891), but during the past is completely
destroyed to.

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The analysis of floral elements spectrum– Analiza spektra flornih elemenata

In the structure of forest vegetation 135 plant species
have been found (Graph 1).The richest is thermophillos
community Quercetum petraeae-cerrisand
Querco-Carpinetum. Going to colder habitats in higher
position number of plant species has decreasing tendency
(Graph 1).

The 14 categories of floral elements have been
found in floristic composition of forest communities on
the Crvanj Mt. (Tab. 2).

To Dinaric floral element belongs only one species
found in the association Quercetum petraeae-cerris.
Species of Balkan floral element are present in all asso-

Graph 1.Number of plant species of the forest communites of Crvanj Mt.

Grafikon 1Broj vrsta biljaka u zajednicama šuma Crvanj planine

ciations with interval of 5 % (Quercetum petraeae-cer-The presence of these floral elements shows the siris)
to the 10 % (Phyteumo-Fagetum). Species of south-gnificant difference in comparision to forest communi-

European distribution are dominant
Seslerio-Fagetum sylvaticae.

Table 2.Floral elements spectrum

Tablica 2Spektar flornih elemenata

NoFloral elements
No of
5SE Europas53.70
13NE -euroassiacs118.16

in the ass.
ties from of Euroasian wide area (Korotkov&al.,
1990; Rodwell&al., 1991; Wallnofer&al.,

The species with subalpine floral
element show significant increa

sing in spectrum, with increase of
altitude.They are most abundant in
the association of subalpine beech
forests (29 %). Similar relations ha ve
been found in species of Euroasiatic-
suboceanic floral element.
With decrease of altitude, number
of species of northeastern-Euroasia tic
and sub-Mediterranean floral
ele ment increases. Sub-Atlantic floral
elements is most abundant in
mountain beech forests.

The analisys of floral elements
spectrum as well as other investigated
parameters show intermediate
character of beech forest communities
developed on Crvanj Mt. in re

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SAŽETAK: Istraživani su obrasci bioraznolikosti zajednica šumske vegetacije
na vertikalnom profilu planine Crvanj u Hercegovini (od Uloga do Zimomora
– vrha planine Crvanj). Šumska vegetacija predstavljena je sa sljedećim
zajednicama:Quercetum petraeae-cerrisB. Jovanović (1960) 1979 subas.seslerietosum
autumnalissubas. nova; Lathyro nigeri-Quercetum cerrisnomen
nov hoc loco (Syn.:Quercetum petraeae-cerris “mediterraneo-montanum”Lakušić
et Kutleša 1977, Aceri-Carpinetum orientalisBlečić et Lakušić 1966 iz
sveze Quercion petraeae-cerris[(Lakušić 1976) Lakušić et Jovanović 1980]
Čarni et al. 2009 iCarpinion orientalisBlečić et Lakušić 1966;Querco-Carpinetum
betuliHorvat 1938 emend Blečić 1958 subas.quercetosum cerrisStefanović
1964 aposeriosum foetidaefacies nov. iz sveze Erythronio-Carpinion
betuli(Horvat 1958) Marinček in Mucina et al. 1993;Lathyro verni-Fagetum
sylvaticaeRedžić 2007 nom. nov (Syn.:Fagetum moesiacae montanumBlečić
et Lakušić 1970), Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum sylvaticaeBlečić et Lakušić
1970 corr. hoc loco i Phyteumo spicatae-Fagetum sylvaticaeBarudanović 2003
corr. hoc loco (Syn.: Aceri-Fagetum subalpinumFukarek et Stefanović 1958
emend Fukarek 1969) (alliance Seslerio-FagionNomen nov hoc loco (Syn.:Fagion
moesiacaeBlečić et Lakušić 1970). Sve biljne zajednice su hemikriptofitsko-
fanerofitskog karaktera sa značajnim učešćem geofita. Balkanski, dinarski
i jugoistočno-evropski florni elementi značajno diferenciraju ove zajednice od
srodnih šumskih zajednica drugih područja Dinarida.

Ključne riječi:Balkan, Crvanj planina, Hercegovina, Querco-Fagetea,
Sintaksonomija, Šumska vegetacija

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lation to communities of alliances Aremonio-Fagion
However, significant presence of species with Balkan
and sub-Meditettanean floral element leads to posi-

Analysis of life forms spectrum

Comparative analysis of the life forms spectrum
(Tab. 3) show the significant decrease of phanerophytes
with increase of altitude. Most of the analyzed associations
have high level of hemicryptophyte-phanerophitic
species presence, what is caused by influence of temperate
continental climate (Redžić&Barudanović,
1991;Redžić&al., 1987;Redžić,1988).

Ass.Seslerio-Fagetumhas phanerophyte-hemicryptophytic
character, what is expression of polidominant
structure and relict character of community.The community
Aceri-Fagetumhas hemicryptophyte-geophytic
character, what indicates relatively high level of air hu

tioning of these forests within other communities ofSe-
slerio-Fagionalliance (Tab. 2).

– Analiza spektra životnih formi
Table 3.Plant life form spectrum
Tablica 3Spektar životnih formi biljaka

Plant life form
P– Phanerophytae3324.44
Ch– Chamaephytae107.41
H– Hemicryptophytae6447.41
G– Geophytae2720.00
T– Therophytae10.74

midity during the vegetation period, as well as unfavourable
thermic conditions of habitat (Tab. 3).

CONCLUSION – Zaključak

Forest vegetation of Crvanj Mt. has broadleaved
character. In the hilly belt forest with Quercus petraea
andQuercus cerrisare dominant. However, in mountain
and subalpine vegetation beltFagus sylvaticadominate.
In phytocoenological sense, researched forests
belong toQuerco-FageteaClass and act as important
part of beech forests diversity on DinaricAlps.

Special value, both for local and regional biodiversity,
have communities of Quercion petraeae- cerrisalliance,
as well as endemorelicts Aceri-Fagetumand
Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum sylvaticae.


This investigation is part of project: “Obrasci ekološko-
sintaksonomskog diverziteta u procjeni stanja i nosivog
kapaciteta ekosistema životne sredine” Ministry of

According to EUNIS habitat classification, researched
communities are developed on habitats with special
value for conservation of European biodiversity. On Crvanj
Mt.are habitats of many rare, endemic and treathened
species such asHelleborus multifidus, Helleborus
purpurascens, Iris graminea, Ostrya carpinifolia, Corylus
colurna, Rhamnus fallax, Sesleria autumnalis,
Galanthus nivalis, Convallaria maialisand other important
species for biodiversity Dinaric and European
wide area.


Education and Sciences, Canton Sarajevo, Federation of
BiH, Bosnia and Herzegovina (02-05-16280-9.18a/07
od 07.06.2007).

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