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ŠUMARSKI LIST 5-6/2010 str. 83     <-- 83 -->        PDF

M. Šporčić, M. Landekić, M.. Lovrić, S. Bogdan, K. Šegotić: VIŠEKRITERIJSKO ODLUČIVANJE ...Šumarski list br. 5–6, CXXXIV (2010), 275-286
SUMMARY: Planning and decision making in forestry is characterized
with a high degree of complexity due to multiple goals of forest management.
The principle of the sustainable development is incorporated in management
and utilization of forests and forest land in a way that adheres to biological diversity,
productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and potential of the forest
to fulfill, now and in the future, its important economical, ecological and social
functions. All of the above complicates the performing of daily forestry
operations, while managers are conditioned to perform constant analyzes of
all relevant management indicators. The emphasis in these analyzes is put on
standardized natural and financial indicators of production and management.
In this highly dynamical period for the management of natural resources forestry
experts need models in which different accounting and financial data is
transformed into easily usable information. In such circumstances methods
and techniques that can contribute to more reliable planning and to more objective
decision making are of great importance, as are the models of objective
analysis and management result-scoring methods.

This paper provides an overview of models which take into consideration
simultaneously several criteria, so that they can provide more comprehensive
measures of management, and to serve as a background for planning and decision
making. Several methods of multiple-criteria decision making has been
described and compared. Brief description and comparison presented in the
paper includes following multi-criteria methods: data envelopment analysis
(DEA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), simple multi-attribute rating technique
(SMART), outranking methods, voting methods and stochastic multicriteria
analysis (SMAA). The goal is to explain for which types of tasks and
problems these methods can be applied in the field of forestry. That provides
an insight into characteristics of the respective methods and a guideline to
eventual choice of which method to apply. A valuable contribution on the role
and significance of the multiple-criteria decision making models in forestry is
provided through cited papers, and specially through concrete example of the
application of such models through the research performed within “Hrvatske
šume” Ltd. Zagreb. In this research the efficiency of organizational units in
the Croatian forestry is evaluated by applying DEA. The results of relative efficiency
are based on calculation of output oriented CCR and BCC models.
Frequency of efficient units in reference set of inefficient units is given. The
sources and values of inefficiencies are established and the impact of structural
characteristics on relative efficiency of forest offices is shown. Forest offices
are also grouped by Forest Administrations and regions they belong to.

In the selection and application of multiple-criteria decision making methods
a special attention must be paid to the quality and availability of information
which are needed for the analysis and grading of alternatives,
according to the set criteria. An appropriate method must be chosen in a way
in which all the data available with the reasonable amount of effort and dedication
could be utilised as fully as possible. It is also good to apply models
which decision makers and other stakeholders can understand, and whose results
and calculations they can easily illustrate and interpret. However, practical
multiple-criteria decision making applications are usually too
“technical”, so real cases and situations are either over-simplified, or they
are too complex for application, comprehension and interpretation. In such
conditions their application in decision making and management often needs
special knowledge and/or help of trained experts. At the same time, the differences
in the types of individuals involved in the process of planning and decision
making has to be also taken into consideration. People differ between
each other in knowledge and skills, and they are differently prepared do participate
in analyzes and decision making. Recent studies demonstrate to the