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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2010 str. 78     <-- 78 -->        PDF

M. Glavendekić: PARASITOIDS AND HYPERPARASITOIDS OF ERANNIS DEFOLIARIACL. ... Šumarski list br. 7–8, CXXXIV (2010), 403-410

occurrence, they are divided in early-season (spring)
defoliators, the long-season defoliators and late-season
defoliators.To early-season defoliators belong species
which overwinter in the stages of egg or pupa and
whose activity is related to early spring.Their caterpillars
feed on the buds or young leaves and their development
ends very quickly. This group is faunistically
most versatile (leaf rollers, winter moths, noctuid
moths, sawflies, oak leaf beetles, weevils).Their defoliations
occur chronically and the consequence of defoliation
is the reduction of increment (Klepac &
Spaić,1965;Rubcov,1996). For this reason, defoliators
are paid special attention to and the control measures
are most often directed against them.

The first data aboutE. defoliaraoutbreaks in oak forests
from 1887 to 1898 are given by Langhoffer,
1899. Long-term study of winter moths in Croatia - Slavonia
oak forests were undertaken in 1960 (Spaić,
1974).The significance of winter moths in Serbia, as forest
pests was emphasised by Tomić,1980; Vasić &
Tomić,1980. Predators and parasitoids of herbivores
can reduce the pests or prevent their outbreak. After
multiannual application of DDTpreparations in the suppression
of gypsy moths in forests, ecological study was
undertaken in the fifties of last century, in order to find
alternate methods of forest insect pests suppression
(Pschorn - Walcher,1977).These researches were
aimed at the development of the concept of biological
control applied in Canada, where the outbreak of the
winter moth was suppressed by biological control (Embree,
1966).The application of biological methods in
the control of forest insect pests was studied byMihajlović,
Lj., (1986),Harapin (1992),Glavendekić
(1992) and many other authors. Based on the literature,
53 parasitoids and 11 hyperparasitoids have so far been
identified forE. defoliariain Europe (Herting,1965,
1976; Čapek, and Čepelak, 1981; Čapek, 1985;
Djorović,1980). The most of parasitoids belong to
Hymenoptera (41 species) and the rest belong to Diptera
(Tachinidae 11 species and Phoridae one species). The
majority of hyperparasitoids are from family Ichneumonidae
(10 species) and only one species from the family
Perilampidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).The following
parasitoids in Serbia were recorded on mottled
umber moth:Cotesia jucundaMarsh., Meteorus versicolorWesm.
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Eulophus larvarum
L. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Phorocera
obscuraFall. (Diptera:Tachinidae).

MATERIALAND METHODS – Materijali i metode rada

The research done on all development stages of E.
defoliariaClerck, 1759.The research was carried out by
field and laboratory methods. Field work included standard
methods of entomological research of moths in all
development stages.The method of exposure in nature
was applied to eggs and larvae by using sticky bands at
the time of female activity. Females laid eggs in bark
crevices below sticky bands.The parts of the bark with
eggs were cut and the samples were taken to the laboratory
for rearing and processing. Sticky bands were also
used for larval exposure, but inApril and May.

To monitor population dynamics and the change of
quality composition of winter moths, absolute and relative
abundance of E. defoliaria was assessed every
year. Caterpillar density was assessed when they were
predominantly the second and partly the third instars.
Absolute abundance was assessed by counting the leaves
or opened buds and caterpillars in the sample. Relative
abundance was assessed based on the number of
caterpillars on 1000 leaves.

Biology and ecology ofE. defoliariawere studied on
the following localities and types of forests: 1. Fruška
gora Mt., Brankovac, Compartment 41 – forest ofTurkey
oak and sessile oak (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on
brown and lessive brown soil on serpentinite. 2. Forest
Unit Košutnjak - one sample plot was set aside in the forest
of sessile oak,Turkey oak and hornbeam (Carpino-
Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil and
lessive brown forest soil.The second in the plantation of
red oak (Quercus rubra L.) on humus brown forest soil.
The third one was set aside in the association Orno-
Quercetum pubescentis-virgilianae.3. Forest Unit Mala
Moštanica compartment 52 – artificially regenerated
stand of black locust and a mixture of oaks are established
on a typical site of Hungarian oak andTurkey oak.

4.Forest UnitAvala, Compartment 15, in a climatogenic
communityQuercetum frainetto-cerris aculatetosumon
lessive brown forest soil. 5. Forest Unit Jamena – Radjenovci,
Visoka šuma, compartment 4c – forest type pedunculate
oak and hornbeam (Carpino Quercetum
roboris) on brown forest soil to lessive brown forest soil
in the non-flooded area. 6. Forest Unit Visoka šuma
Lošinci, compartments 1a, 2d, 15a. – forest type pedunculate
oak, hornbeam andTurkey oak (Carpino-Quercetum
robori-cerris typicum) on brown forest soil to
lessive brown forest soil. 7. Forest Unit Visoka šuma
Lošinci, compartment 23g. – forest type pedunculate
oak, hornbeam andTurkey oak (Carpino-Quercetum robori-
cerris typicum)on lessive to semigley soils. 8. Forest
Unit Miroč, compartment 73a – forest of sessile oak
Quercetum montanum typicum) on brown soils. 9. Forest
Unit Porečke šume, compartment: 54b – forest type
beech and sessile oak (Querco-Fagetum typicum) on
acid brown and lessive acid brown soil. 10. Forest Unit
Porečke šume, compartment 54 f – forest type sessile
oak (Quercetum montanum typicum) on acid brown soil.

11.Forest Unit Zlatica, compartment 93a – forest type
sessile oak (Quercetum montanum typicum) on acid