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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2010 str. 82     <-- 82 -->        PDF

M. Glavendekić: PARASITOIDS AND HYPERPARASITOIDS OF ERANNIS DEFOLIARIACL. ... Šumarski list br. 7–8, CXXXIV (2010), 403-410

dominant at the locality Miroč, eggs of this species
were less parasitized (8.11%). Egg parasitism of A. aurantiariawas
lower - only 5.4%. Parasitized eggs are
brown, so they can be readily differentiated from the
eggs parasitized by waspsTrichogramma sp. Thedissection
of dead eggs revealed the presence ofT. minutuslarva
in them.

In the Forest units Zlatica, Boljetinska reka and
Mala Moštanica the waspsTrichogramma sp.(Hymenoptera:
Trichogrammatidae) were reared from winter
moths eggs. Parasitized eggs are distinguished by their
almost black colour. In this way, we can assess the parasitism
even after the eclosion of parasitic wasps.The
winter moth eggs were parasitized between 16.33% at
Boljetinska Reka, compartment 44, to 33.95% at Zlatica,
compartment 96. It was found out that the majority
of eggs died from other causes (e.g. predators).At
Zlatica, compartment 59, the total mortality of eggs

Many authors give the data on population dynamic
of E. defoliaria (Patočka et al.,1968; Glavendekić,
1988, 1999). During our study, mottled umber
moth was recorded in all localities, most often in a
lower population density except in East Serbia, where
it was dominant compared to the populations of other
early-season defoliators.
Winter moth population dynamics has been studied
in different forest types. Based on our own data and literature,
it is evident that frequent outbreaks of 9 winter

moth species are of chronic type and characteristic for
the following forest types: forest ofTurkey oak and sessile
oak (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown and les

sive brown soil on serpentinite at the locality Brankovac;
forests of sessile oak (Quercetum montanum typicum) on
acid brown soil in the locality Porečke šume, compartment
54 f; in the forest of Hungarian oak andTurkey oak
with Eastern hornbeam (Quercetum frainetto-cerris carpinetosum
orientalis) on dystric and eutric brown soils
on Bukovik; in the association Orno-Quercetum pubescentis-
virgilianae in Košutnjak and in the artificially
established stand of mixed oaks at Mala Moštanica.
Plantations of pedunculate oak mixed with hornbeam in
forest unitVisoka šuma Lošinci are also under threat of
winter moths outbreaks.

Winter moths occur regularly, but as a rule there are
no outbreaks in the forest of sessile oak, Turkey oak
and hornbeam (Carpino-Quercetum petraeae-cerris)
onbrown forest soil and lessive brown forest soil.

The study of parasitoids and hyperparasitoids ofE.
defoliariashows that parasitic wasps fam. Braconidae
are not narrowly specific for theE. defoliaria

The fauna of parasitic wasps in the fam. Ichneumonidaeisrelatively
poor also if compared to the fauna of
other European countries, Slovakia and the former
was 58.49%. In Zlatica, compartment 96 egg mortality
was 44.65%.

The level of egg parasitism of winter moths in natural
population in the management unit Zlatica, compartment
59 was 33%. Larval eclosion was recorded
from 41.51% of eggs, whereas 25.47% eggs died during
the embryonic development. In the Forest unit Zlatica,
compartment 96, the parasitized eggs were almost
34%.The mortality during the embryonic development
was 10.7%According to the report of the Diagnose-forecasting
service, a mass occurrence of winter moths
was forecast for the spring in 1992 in these compartments,
but it failed.The efficiency of egg parasitoids in
the management unit Boljetinska Reka, compartment
44, was somewhat lower, there were altogether 16.33%
parasitized eggs. Egg mortality during embryonic development
was 14.28%.

– Rasprava
USSR (Herting, 1965, 1976; Čapek, and Čepelak,
1981;Čapek,1985). One of the reasons is that
winter moths in the study period were in pre-culmination,
culmination or in the first post-culmination years,
when parasitoid populations in the fam. Ichneumonidaeare
usually low.They dominate in the phase of latency,
while in the culmination phase they retreat
before Tachinidae.

Eulophus larvarum is the most frequent and the
most numerous representative of parasitic wasps in the
superfamily Chalcidoidaea.In the conditions of winter
moth outbreaks, it is a dominant representative of parasitic
Hymenoptera.In the host culmination phase, this
species also showed a great upswing of abundance.

Egg parasitoids Trichogramma sp. and Telenomus
minutushave been described.The research was performed
in the entire study area, but egg parasitoids were
detected only at the locality Mala Moštanica, Zlatica and
Miroč. Egg parasitoidT. minutuswas so far recognized
only as the parasitoid ofOrthosia miniosa(Lepi doptera,
Noctuidae) (Kozlov and Kononova, 1983), and
Operophtera spp.(Glavendekić&Gruppe,1992).

Tachinidae are the most significant winter moth parasitoids
on many localities. The dominance and frequency
of B. nigripes, P. nemea are expected and in
harmony with the results of the studySisojević and
Čepelak,(1998).TachinidsP. magnicornis, andP. fissicorniswere
found individually. In the study of population
dynamics of early-season defoliators in the
Management unit Kožica in the period 1992–1994, a
high population density was recorded in 1992, and already
in the following year there was a drastic decrease
of population density.This was caused, first of all by caterpillar
parasitoids, which reduced ca. 67%.The most
represented parasitoids wereTachinidae. On that occa