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ŠUMARSKI LIST 9-10/2010 str. 64     <-- 64 -->        PDF

D. Matošević, M. Pernek, B. Hrašovec: PRVI NALAZ KESTENOVE OSE ŠIŠKARICE (Drycosmus kuriphilus) ... Šumarski list br. 9–10, CXXXIV (2010), 497-502

Payne,J.A., R.A.Jaynes, S. J.Kays,1983:Chinese
chestnut production in the United States:
practice, problems and possible solutions. Economic
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Quacchia,A., S.Moriya, G.Bosio, G.Scapin,
cal control agent of the chestnut gall waspDryocosmus
kuriphilus. BioControl53: 829–839.

Rieske, L.K., 2007: Success of an exotic gallmaker,
Dryocosmus kuriphilus,on chestnut in the USA:
a historical account. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bul-

A.Alma,2007: Rearing, release and settlement letin 37: 172–174.
prospect in Italy ofTorymus sinensis, the biologi-

SUMMARY: Oriental chestnut gall wasp (DryocosmuskuriphilusYat su matsu)
(Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is new invasive species in Europe and important
pest on sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.). It is on quarantine
species lists in Europe as well as in Croatia. The species originates from
China and it was first introduced to Europe to Italy in 2002. It has also been
recorded in Slovenia, France, Hungary and Switzerland. In May 2010. it was
recorded in Croatia for the first time.

Oriental chestnut gall wasp has one generation per year (Figure 1). Adult
wasps (only females are known) emerge from galls from mid June until the end
of July and lay eggs in the buds. The wasp overvinters as early larval instar in
buds and cannot be detected without large magnification lense. In spring when
new shoots and leaves emerge the galls develop on the leaf midveins (Figure 2)
or shoots. The galls, 5–20 mm in diameter, contain one or usually several chambers
with white larvae, later pupae. Young galls are green, later rose-coloured
and can be easily detected on sweet chestnut shoots. Old galls are brown, wood-
like and remain attached to the tree up to two years (Figure 3).

The spread of oriental gall wasp occurs mainly by transport of infected
plant material (scions for grafting, plants for planting) into new areas. Locally,
the wasps spreads by active flight or passive (aided by wind or human
dispersal) transport.

The galls disrupt twig growth and reduce fruiting. Various authors consider
it as a seroius pest on sweet chestnut trees. Several control measures
against this pest have prooved themselves uneffective. Pruning of infested
shoots can be done in small orchards but this method is uneffective in forests.
Some parasitoid species, e.g. Torymus sinensis, can reduce populations of
oriental chestnut gall wasp and this species has already been introduced as
biological control agent in Japan, Korea and Italy.

Oriental sweet chestnut gall wasp was first recorded in Croatia on 21 May
2010 in Lovran and after that in several other sweet chestnut forests (Table 1,
Figure 5). According to the number of galls per shoot it can be estimated that
on the localities Lovran, Samobor and Ozalj (single galls per leaf/shoot) the
pest has recently been introduced. Localities in Zagreb had high infestation
rates (numerous galls per leaf/shoot) and it can be estimated that the pest is
here present since 2007 or 2008. The spread forecast for Croatia for the following
years is given. Intensive spread can be expected in all areas where sweet
chestnut is grown, lower intensity in Istria, surroundings of Karlovac and Banija,
and much higher intensity and quicker spread in Zagreb area, Hrvatsko
zagorje and Samoborsko gorje. The trasport of infested planting material to
uninfected zones (region of hills in Slavonia) shoud be strongly avoided.

Key words:quarantine pest, galls, sweet chestnut, damage