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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2010 str. 18     <-- 18 -->        PDF

J. Vukelić, A. Alegro, V. Šegota, I. Šapić: NOMENKLATURNO-FITOCENOLOŠKA REVIZIJA ASOCIJACIJE ... Šumarski list br. 11–12, CXXXIV (2010), 559-568
(e.g. Salix appendiculata, Sambucus racemosa, Lonicera caerulea subsp. borbasiana,
Festuca bosniaca, Hypericum richeri subsp. grisebachii, Cardus acanthoides, Geranium
macrorrhizum, Achillea clavene, Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Ribes
alpinum and many others) are missing from stands of spruce forest with small-reed in
the Austrian Alps (Willner and Grabherr 2007, columns 7 and 8, Table 34). On the
other hand, these stands contain more than 100 species which were not recorded in
the Dinaric association. Of these species, Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris, Polygala
chamaebuxus, Sesleria albicans, Homogyne alpina, Carex alba, Hepatica nobilis,
Erica carnea, Campanula cochleariifolia, Ranunculus nemorosus and others are
particularly prominent in terms of occurrence or participation. The investigated
spruce association differs from subalpine spruce forests growing in Slovenia (Zupančič
1999) and in other Dinaric regions (Vukelić, Alegro and Šegota 2010).
To select diagnostic species of the association, we compared ten relevés from
Table 1 and used the results of research into the forest vegetation of south-eastern
Europe, primarily that of Fukarek (1964), Stefanović (1970), Zupančič (1980, 1999),
Zupančič and Acceto (1994), Vukelić, Alegro and Šegota (2010) and other phytocoenologists.
Special mention should be made of a broader group of differentiating species
which characterize the subalpine, open-canopy rocky sites and which either do
not occur in other spruce communities or are present to a much lesser degree. These
include in the first place Juniperus communis subsp. alpina, Salix apendicullata,
Sambucus racemosa, Hypericum richeri subsp. grisebachii, Achillea clavenae, Gentiana
lutea subsp. symphyandra, than Festuca bosniaca, Cardus acanthoides, Carlina
acaulis subsp. caulescens, Asplenium fissum, Melampyrum velebiticum and
others. Not all of them are primarily forest species; the sites of this spruce forest are
frequently interspersed with mountain clearings and massive blocks whose cracks
are inhabited by these species. In relation to other spruce forests in Croatia and
wider, there is also a group of forest species with high participation and cover that
includes Calamagrostis varia, Polystychum lonchitis, Adenostyles alpina and Vaccinium
vitis-idaea. These species play an important role in the identification and differentiation
of this association, although they cannot be determined as differentiating
since they are also present in other Dinaric phytocoenoses.

St John’s wort, Hypericum richeri Vill. subsp. grisebachii (Boiss.) Nyman, proved
to be the most suitable species for nominating the association. Its participation
and amounts are much higher than in the related phytocoenoses, while its eco-indicator
properties are ideally suited to the site conditions of the association. Moreover,
it has not been used in the nomination of common spruce communities. In forest
communities of Croatia, Hypericum richeri subsp. grisebachii is found in mugo
pine stands and in the investigated spruce association. Regardless of the same sin-
systematic affiliation, these two associations differ profoundly.

Based on the above, the valid name of the analyzed association is Hyperico gri-
sebachii-Piceetum abietis (Bertović 1975) nom. nov. hoc loco. We propose Bertović’s
relevé No 5 in Table 17 (Bertović 1975, p. 34) to be the nomenclatural type
(lectotypus hoc loco), This will solve the problem of the name and independent status
of the association. In the syntaxonomic sense, it belongs to the alliance Vaccinio-
Piceion, order Vaccinio-Piceetalia and class Vaccinio-Piceetea.

The phytocoenosis does not have any commercial importance, but is of high protective
and natural-scientific significance. The most important stands are found in
North Velebit National Park, but the association also occurs sporadically in Samarske
Stijene on Bjelolasica and in the Smrekovac area in the Risnjak massif. The
composition of the phytocoenosis is not uniform across the entire distribution
range. The high ridges on which it grows are relatively distant enclaves with their
specific geobotanical and horological features.

Key words: Ass. Calamagrostio variae-Piceetum dinaricum Bertović 1975,
ass. Hyperico grisebachii-Piceetum abietis (Bertović 1975) nom. nov. hoc loco, floral
composition, Dinaric mountains, Croatia