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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2010 str. 57     <-- 57 -->        PDF

P. Kovácsová, M. Antalová: PRECISION FORESTRY – DEFINITION AND TECHNOLOGIES Šumarski list br. 11–12, CXXXIV (2010), 603-611
2.4. GIS (Geographic Information System) – Geografski informacijski sustav
GIS is a spatial information system that comprises
out of four basic elements; hardware, software, data and
user. By capturing, storing, checking, manipulating and
analyzing the terrain information related to spatial and
geographic distribution it can export all kinds of data
and graphs, and provide a series of helpful documents
and plans for the decision maker (L i et al. 2000).

This system can accommodate large amounts of
data. GIS operates with variety of data types such as
maps, images, digital products, GPS, text data and tabular
data, all of which can be received from multiple
sources. There is possibility to create large databases
from gaining and measuring data which are joined with
vector and raster formats. These outputs provide us

specific images and maps such as Digital Elevation
Models (DEMs), Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), Topographic
Line Maps (TLMs), Contours, Shaded Relief,
Slope & Aspect and Thematic Maps. The outputs
are results of respective analyzes, such as Image analysis,
Distance analysis, Spatial analysis, Geostatisticals
analysis, Surface analysis, ect.

Related to other tools, GIS as software is very significant.
This software can be integrated into handheld
computers used for fieldwork and obtains information
directly from outside. GIS has one important advantage

– it is possible to create networks of GIS, which allows
quick access to data and information.
2.5. DSS (Decision support systems) – Sustavi za potporu odlučivanju
They are specific software solutions, which have
been developed for solving specific problems and offer
forecast and factually information. Advantage of decision
support systems is that it can be joined with GIS
by which we can improve results. At present, there
have been some decision support systems which dealt
with predicting road networks, forest operation planning,
forest inventory and others types of solutions. All
of them are based on algorithms by which the solution
and forecast is reached, and subsequently visualized.

In Slovakia at the Technical University in Zvolen
there were OHTS (optimal harvesting and logging technology
selection) model created, which were used for
selection of optimal timber harvesting and logging machinery
and technology; also FFRA model (Forest Fire
Risk Assessment) is used for fire risk analysis which is
significant part of the fire warning system. These DDSs
were developed in NetWeaver environment and EMDS
(Ecosystem Management Decision Support) environment
and subsequently linked up with GIS.

OHTS model is based on the assessment of ecological
criteria like the terrain accessibility, the skidding
distance, the erosion caused by logging, the cutting
method, the soil capacity, the forest stand structure, the
trucks loading places and on the assessment of economical
and ergonomic criteria. The results of model assessment
(digital or printed maps representing the
appropriateness of each machinery/technology used on
each forest stand), using the OHTS model, can be used
by forest planners, mainly for operational and tactical
planning of timber harvesting and logging activities in
the forest (Tuček and Majlingová 2010, Suchomel
and Balenová 2009).
FFRA (Forest Fire Risk Assessment) model is
based on existing methodology, which can be implemented
to Decision support software. Methodology is
based on two types of analyzes. In the first type, the forest
fire risk is described by means of probability, the
assumed disturbance of the forest (based on its species
composition) in the age (t) during a common year. In
the second type of analyzes, the influence of relevant
geographic factors (elevation, slope, aspect, the nearest
road distance, the nearest settlement and urbanized
area distance) is tested against the fire occurrence. To
use it, you have to acquire the data about burned out forest
areas by processing records about fires in forest
stands of the analyzed area in order to calculate the probabilities
reporting the assumed disturbance of the forest.
The results can be implemented also to forest
management planning as a measure for reducing the
vulnerability of the forest in the future. (Tuček and
Majlingová 2010).

Among decision support systems file growth simulator
software can be stipulated, which is implemented
in forestry and ecology. In Slovakia there has been developed
a growth simulator with entitled SYBILA
which provides the advantage of an individual tree modelling
approach. The model is able to predict forest
development under the consideration of a wide range
of input parameters. The growth simulator has already
been successfully applied for the simulation of the impact
of climate change and differently type of forest calamity
on the development of Slovak forests (Fabrika
et al. 2008). This model can be implemented into current
forestry practice as a tool for decision support.
Also, other European countries have some famous
growth simulator software such as SILVA, MOSES,
CORKFITS. These software solutions are very accurate
and they have been constantly improved.

Precision forestry and all its tools provide many
advantages to foresters, forest owners and wood processing
industries and others.