prilagođeno pretraživanje po punom tekstu

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 49     <-- 49 -->        PDF


UDK 630* 187 (001)

Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae Domac (1956) 1965ASSOCIATION
FORESTS DOMINATED BY Pinus nigra Arn. s.l.

Junipero sibiricae -pinetum dalmaticae Domac(1956) 1965 TE USPOREDBA

Zorana SEDLAR*, Vladimir HRŠAK*, Renata ŠOŠTARIĆ*

SUMMARY: This study analyses the ecological and syntaxonomical
characteristics of theJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaeDomac(1956)
1965 association. This association is present only on higher altitudes of Biokovo
Mountain situated on the eastern Adriatic coast. With its highest peak at
an altitude of 1,762m, Biokovo is one of the hotspots of plant endemism in
Croatia. It is highly influenced by the Mediterranean climate which is expressed
up to the higher parts of the mountain, although, due to its height, it has
weakened montane and alpine conditions on the peaks. According to the present
syntaxonomical solution, the researched association belongs to the submediterranean
alliance Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis in the Quercetalia
pubescentisorder in the Querco-Fageteaclass. Numerical and syntaxonomical
analyses suggest thatJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaeon Biokovo
differs from all other Dalmatian pine vegetation types. Cluster analysis, Indicator
species analysis together with Nonmetric multidimensional scaling used
to compare it to forests dominated by Pinus nigras.l. from other Mediterranean
areas (Greece, Iberian peninsula, Corsica and Sicily) suggested it
should be classified in thePino-Junipereteaclass, theJuniperetalia haemisphaericaeorder,
and the eastern Mediterranean Berberidocraeticae-Juniperion
foetidissimae alliance. The resemblance of Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaewith
eastern Mediterranean associations and its inclusion into mentioned
syntaxa is confirmed phytosociologically and ecologically.

Key words: Biokovo Mountain, multivariate analysis, Pinus nigra
subsp. dalmatica, syntaxonomy

Abbreviations:ISA(Indicator Species Analysis), IV (Indicator Value),
NMS (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling), p (Probability)

Black pine (Pinus nigraArn.) is present in the Medi-days relegated to more vegetation zones, vertical belt
terranean in several subspecific taxa and mostly forms and phytogeographical areas. However, they are mostly
pure, but sometimes also, mixed forests with other broa-present in supra- and oromediterranean belt. Black pine,
dleafed trees and conifers (Regato &al. 1995).The as a Mediterranean taxon, and habitats dominated by it
communities dominated by Pinus nigra s.l. are nowa-are distributed in the Mediterranean on a wide area.
They are in relatively small and, in between, isolated


Zorana Sedlar, dipl. ing., prof. dr. sc. Vladimir Hršak,

areas surrounded by other types of vegetation (Berg

doc. dr. sc. Renata šoštarić Marulićev trg 20/ Prirodoslovno-ma

meier 1990;Van Haverbeke 2009). Eve ry wider

tematički fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu,10000 Zagreb,
area, inside the total geographical distribution, has its

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 50     <-- 50 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

own special endemic taxon fromPinus nigras.l. complex
and can be rich in endemics (Brullo &al. 2001).
The size of the Mediterranean basin and the geographical
isolation of its islands and peninsulas drove to massive
speciation process among the species forming in the
high mountain vegetation.The biodiversity of Mediterranean
orophilous communities is thus among the highest
in Europe.This is why many local species enter into
speces assemblage of syntaxa of eachPinus nigrasubspecies,
as do species from neighbouring vegetation
type. In the Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae
Domac (1956) 1965 association species enter most
frequently from Quercetalia pubescentis Br.Bl. (1931)
1932 order. Black pine forests often have in their structure
a great number of species which grow on screes and
rocks than zonal vegetation (Bergmeier 1990). This
is why communities of different Mediterranean areas,
formed by black pine, have low number of matching
species and more expressed local floristic features than
it is the case with zonal and other types of vegetation
(Bergmeier 1990).The syntaxonomic classification
is very difficult and an object of different discussions
and different syntaxonomic solutions because of these
reasons (Rivas-Martínez 1964; Domac 1965;
Horvat &al. 1974; Trinajstić 1977, 1986, 1990,
1998; Bergmeier 1990; 2002; Rivas-Martínez
&al. 1999;Brullo&al.2001).

In classification of black pine forests there are several
different concepts. The first concept is taking a
pure numeric proportion of species from different syntaxa
with which black pine forests adjoins as a classification
basis for a higher level of syntaxa.According to
this concept it is attempted to classify black pine
forests into an existing higher level syntaxon or to present
it as a subassociation or a facies of a neighbouring
association which has the most matching species in
species assemblage. The second concept introduces
habitat differentiation, ecological and structural characteristics
which make numeric part of different syntaxa
relative. The third concept is to give greater
meaning to the supraregional characteristics, of termophillous
pine forests at merging to higher level syntaxa
(Bergmeier 1990). Example for this concept is
Erico-Pinetea Horvat 1959 class and lower syntaxa
(Horvat 1959).

Pinus nigrasubsp.dalmatica(Vis) Franco is an endemic
taxon distributed on the coast, on some islands
of southern Dalmatia and on the southern slopes of the
DinaricAlps at altitudes from 350 to 1,000 m and is
one of the Mediterranean taxa of the Pinus nigra s.l.
complex (Bogunić &al. 2003;Isajev &al. 2004;
Pignatti 2005). It is a woody phanerophyte of the
northeastern eurimediterranean, found in drier areas
(Pignatti 2005). It is also an Illyrian floral element
(Pignatti 1982a).

The distribution area of Dalmatian pine is spread
over altitudes between 300 and 1,400m and is divided
into two parts: the Biokovo Mountain part and the
coastal part (Trinajstić1986). Dalmatian pine vegetation
is mostly found in forms of different stages of
degradation ofQuercus ilexL. vegetation, mostly garrigues
(Stefanović 1977).The largest complexes of
Dalmatian pine vegetation are on the islands of Brač,
Hvar, and Korčula and on the Pelješac peninsula (Figure
1), at altitudes between 300 and 750 metres. Here,
they are situated in the Mediterranean region in both
eumediterranean and submediterranean vegetation zo nes.
Dalmatian pine vegetation is situated on Biokovo
Mountain mostly in the northwestern part of the mountain
and is divided into two altitudinal parts: an upper
part at an altitude of 1,100-1,400 m, and a lower one at
an altitude of 500-900 m (Domac 1961/62).

Until now, researchers have encountered problems
connected to the typology of Dalmatian pine vegetation.
It was often described as a unique type of vegetation
(Beck-Mannagetta 1901; Horvatić 1928;
Horvat 1950, 1954). Horvat 1950 and 1954 even
marked it as a separate association with its temporary
name “Pinetum dalmaticae”, but made no further attempt
at syntaxonomical analysis.

Later,Horvatić 1958 defined Dalmatian pine
vegetation only as the degradation stages of different
associations and gave them a subassociation and facies
level (Genisto-Ericetum verticillatae pinetosum dalmaticaeHorvatić
1958,Erico-Rosmarinetum pinetosum
dalmaticae Horvatić 1958, Stipo-Salvietum
officinalis pinetosum dalmaticae Horvatić 1958,
Orno-Quercetum ilicis pinosum dalmaticae Horvatić1958).

In contrast, Trinajstić 1977 named a new, higher
level,syntaxa, found on the island of Hvar and des cribed
as Erico manipuliflorae-Pinetum dalmaticae
Trinajstić 1977 and in 1986 another association from
the islands of Korčula and Brač,Querco ilicis-Pinetum
dalmaticaeTrinajstić 1986.

The research and classifications of Horvatić 1958
andTrinajstić 1977, 1986 and 1990 do not include the
area of Biokovo Mountain.The only attempt to describe
and classify Dalmatian pine vegetation on Biokovo
Mountain was made by Domac in 1965. He takes the
syntaxa from Horvatić 1958 into consideration and describes
a new association, found on the higher part of
Biokovo Mountain, asJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaeDomac1965,
classifying it into the deciduous
submediterranean Quercetalia pubescentis order, the
Querco-FageteaBr.-Bl. et Vlieger 1937 class.

This review shows that the syntaxonomy of the Dalmatian
pine vegetation is not simple, although it takes
up a relatively small area. It shows that there are no

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 53     <-- 53 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

Figure 2.Cluster analysis dendrogram divided into 7 groups according to ISAanalysis results.

Slika 2. Dendrogram klasterske analize podijeljen u 7 grupa prema rezultatima ISA analize.

Hvar and Brač, at altitudes of 300-500 m. Those tudes of 460-900 m a.s.l and the author classified them as
relevés are classified by the author asOrno-Quercetum Seslerio-Ostryetum carpinifoliae pinetosum dalmaticae.
ilicis pinosum dalmaticaefor the first five relevés, and

Cluster 3 comprises relevés taken only on the island of
asErico-Rosmarinetum pinetosum dalmaticae.

Brač at altitudes of 600-740 m. One relevé was made by

In cluster 2, there are six relevés, three from the island Horvatić 1958 and the rest by Domac 1965.Altitudes vary
of Brač and three from the lower part of Biokovo Moun-between 600 and 740 m. Both authors determined the
tain.All the relevés were taken by Domac 1965 at alti-relevés as the Stipo-Salvietum officinalis pinetosum dal

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 51     <-- 51 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

unique syntaxonomic solutions, that the Dalmatian
pine vegetation on Biokovo Mountain is different from
all similar vegetation types in the region and that the relation
to similar vegetation is questionable, as is its
syntaxonomical position. This study was therefore
made to research the syntaxonomical and ecological
position of theJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae
association on Biokovo Mountain and its relation to
other types of Dalmatian pine vegetation and black
pine vegetation from other Mediterranean areas.

MATERIALSAND METHODS– Materijal i metode

Study area – Područje istraživanja

The study area is situated in Croatia, the central
Dalmatia region, between N43°27’36”, E16°08’34.2”
and N42°43’47.9”, E17°49’42.8”.The geological base
of the islands, the peninsula and Biokovo Mountain is
carbonate, Mesozoic limestone and dolomite (Cvitanović1974).

Biokovo Mountain rises from the sea coast and runs
parallel with it up to a height of 1,700m (highest peak at
1,762 m).The altitude of the coastal side slope is between
500 and 1,100 m and is very steep with many vertical
cliffs. Above that height there is an undulating karst
plateau. In this zone on karst ridges and exposed habitats
Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae is found.

The islands of Hvar, Brač, and Korčula and the Pelješac
peninsula also have hills, but of lower altitudes than
Biokovo: the highest peak of the island of Hvar is at 628
m, that of the island of Brač is at 778 m, the island of Korčula’s
highest peak measures 569 m, and the highest
peak of the Pelješac peninsula rises to 961 m.

The climate in this area is basically Mediterranean
with an expressed summer drought. On higher parts, of
course, lower temperatures and less expressed drought
occur.The higher parts of Biokovo have an alpine climate,
but the Mediterranean summer drought still occurs
to some degree.The continental slope of Biokovo
is also exposed to the effect of the continental climate
which is not present on the islands of Hvar, Brač and
Korčula and on the Pelješac peninsula.

Biokovo is one of the hotspots of plant endemism in
Croatia. Together with Velebit Mountain, the coastal
area of Dubrovnik and Quarnero islands, this is an area
with a high concentration of endemic and subendemic
plant taxa. Out of more than 1,500 plant taxa present, on
the mountain area alone there are more than 30 endemic
(Borzan & al. 1992). For this high endemism rate
there are several reasons. Biokovo is quite isolated from
other mountains of the DinaricAlps, separated on the
coastal side by the sea and on the continental side by a
wide plane.Another reason for the high number of endemic
plant species is the mountain relief which allows
for the existence of different types of habitats and specific
edaphic and microclimatic characteristics.This relief
even causes the isolation of different habitats on the
mountain (Kušan 1969). Biokovo is also on the
boundary of two phytogeographical regions: the
Mediterranean region and partly the Eurosiberian-
Northamerican region (Trinajstić 1986). This also
explains the presence of a large number of species from
both regions which enlarge the plant diversity on
Biokovo. Such specific phytogeographycal features give
good reason to expect specific types of vegetation on

Data collection – Prikupljanje podataka

The data used in this study were taken from the publications
of Domac 1965,Trinajstić 1986 and1990 and
Horvatić 1958. Domac 1965 made the most comprehensive
research of the distribution area of Dalmatian
pine by taking a total of 41 phytosociological relevés in
Dalmatian pine vegetation on the Dalmatian islands of
Hvar (7 relevés) and Brač (14 relevés), on the Pelješac
peninsula (4 relevés) and Biokovo Mountain (16
relevés).Trinajstić 1986 and 1990 took relevés of Dalmatian
pine vegetation on the islands of Brač (13
relevés), Hvar (3 relevés), Korčula (5 relevés) and on
the Pelješac peninsula (4 relevés). Horvatić 1958 took
6 relevés on the island of Hvar.

Our study is mostly based on the studies done by
Domac 1965 and Trinajstić 1986 and 1990. Figure 1
shows the area where Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica
vegetation was researched. Relevés taken by Domac
1965 contain altitude data, but others do not. However,
the mentioned islands have relatively low peaks so the
altitudes are not different from those measured by
Domac. On the island of Hvar, the altitudes of the
relevés vary from 300 to 480m, on the island of Brač
the relevé altitudes vary from 400 to 740m, and for the
peninsula of Pelješac they vary from 500 to 800m. For
the island of Korčula, there were no measured altitudes,
but its highest peak is in the range of the altitudes
of the relevés taken on the other islands. Domac 1965
made his relevés on Biokovo Mountain at altitudes between
560 and 900 m and between 1,180 and 1400 m.

The relevés taken by Domac 1965,Trinajstić 1986
and 1990 and Horvatić 1958 were made based on the
Braun-Blanquet method using the classic abun dan ce/
cover scale proposed by Braun-Blanquet (BraunBlanquet1964).

Tocompare the species composition with vegetation
dominated by the black pine in other parts of Mediter

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 52     <-- 52 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

Figure 1.Geographical position of the study area. Islands of Brač (1), Hvar (2), Korčula (3), the Pelješac Peninsula (4) and
Biokovo Mountain (5).

Slika 1. Zemljopisni položaj proučavanih područja. Otoci Brač (1), Hvar (2), Korčula (3), poluotok Pelješac (4) Biokovo (5).

ranean we used data from Dalmatia, Eastern, Central
and West Mediterranean taken from Bergmeier 1990
and 2002,Brullo &al. 2001Sánchez-Gómez &

Data processing –

The relevé table based on the Braun-Blanquet scale
was transformed into a data matrix using theVan der
Maarel 1979 ordinal transformation for further statistical
analysis.The table was purified before transformation
by removing species with only one and two
appearances, thus reducing the total number of species
from 239 to 193 species.A cluster analysis was performed
on this data matrix using the Bray-Curtis distance
(Bray & Curtis 1957) as a resemblance
measure, and the UPGMA(group average) linkage as
clustering method. Indicator species analysis (Dufrene
&Legendre 1997) was then performed on the
groups defined by the clustering results to obtain the
optimal number of clusters. Relevés were clustered
into a different number of clusters (3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 and
15) using a cluster dendrogram.The optimal number of

Results –

According to the ISA analysis and its method of
dendrogram pruning, the obtained optimal number of
clusters was 7. Figure 2 represents the group average
clustering dendrogram divided according to this result.

In our research, on these newly formed clusters we
can distinguish different syntaxa, determined by the
relevé authors and grouped in clusters based on the
cluster analysis and ISA.

Inspection of this dendrogram shows a clear separation
of the cluster marked as number 7, which includes
relevés of the higher (1150–1400 m) parts of Biokovo,
Alcaraz 1992.As in all mentioned areas, from which
data was taken, there is a different taxon of Pinus nigra
complex.All were treated as one taxonPinus nigras.l.

Obrada podataka

clusters in the cluster analysis was obtained using the
lowest average probability value, computed in separate
indicator species analyses for each number of clusters
(McCune & Grace 2002). The probability value
was computed using the Monte Carlo permutation test
with 4999 random permutations. Species with indicator
values over 50.0 (IV> 50) and a probability level under

0.05 (p<0.05) were then marked as indicator species
(McCune & Grace 2002). Synoptic table with
combined data from Dalmatia and other parts of
Mediterranean was used to make data matrix on which
Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) using the
Bray-Curtis distance (Bray &Curtis 1957) as a resemblance
measure was performed. Numerical analyses
were done using PCOrd 5.0 software (McCune &


taken by Domac 1965 and phytosociologically defined
as theJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae association.
This cluster is separated at the beginning of clustering
and is completely distinguished from all other
relevé groups. The syntaxonomical classification of
relevés from cluster 7 is the object of this research.

Clusters 1-6 are separated on the other side and are
composed of relevés from the coastal part of the Dalmatian
pine distribution area and of three relevés from
the lower part of Biokovo Mountain.Cluster 1 comprises
relevés taken by Domac 1965 on the islands of

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 54     <-- 54 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

maticaesubassociation.This is the only cluster syntaxonomically
classified into the grassland order and class.

In cluster 4 there are 8 relevés, three made by
Domac 1965 on the Pelješac peninsula and five taken
by Horvatić 1958 on the island of Hvar. Seven relevés
are classified asGenisto-Ericetum verticillatae pinetosum
dalmaticae, taken at 500-800 m, and only one
relevé asErico-Rosmarinetum pinetosum dalmaticae,
taken at 300 m.

Cluster 5 comprises sixteen relevés made byTrinajstić
1986 and 1990 on the Pelješac peninsula and on
the islands of Hvar and Brač, and one relevé made by
Domac 1965 on the Pelješac peninsula. The sixteen
relevés in this cluster were taken and classified byTrinajstić
as Erico manipuliflorae-Pinetum dalmaticae.
The relevé taken by Domac was classified asGenisto-
Ericetum verticillatae pinetosum dalmaticae.

Cluster 6 includes relevés taken and classified byTrinajstić
1986 and 1990 on the islands of Brač and Korčula.
He classified them asQuerco ilicis-Pinetum dalmaticae.

The results of the indicator species analysis are
shown inTable 1. Two species have the maximal possible
indicator value (IV=100) for cluster 7 from the cluster
analysis, Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme
andSesleria robustaSchott,Nyman&Kotschy.


Table 1. Indicator species for cluster 7 with an indicator value (IV) higher than 50 and p lower than 0.05 for
sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaedetermined using ISA
Tablica 1. Indikatorske vrste za klaster 7 s indikatorskom vrijednosti (IV) većom od 50 i p nižim od 0,05 za Junipero
sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaeodređen korištenjem ISA metode

value (IV)
IV from randomised groups
Mean S.Dev p *
Arenaria serpyllifolia L. 53,8 9,6 4,99 0,0002
Asplenium ruta-muraria L. 53,8 9,6 5,23 0,0002
Asplenium trichomanes L. 53,8 9,5 5,14 0,0004
Cerastium grandiflorumWaldst. & Kit
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik. ssp. adriaticum (Beck) Margr.
Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme.
Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill.
Polygala vulgaris L. 92,3 10,8 4,74 0,0002
Sesleria robusta Schott, Nyman &Kotschy 100 11,2 4,84 0,0002

Figure 3 represents the result of Nonmetric Multidimensional
Scaling (NMS) ordination scatterplot using
Bray Curtis as distance measure.The data that entered
this analysis came from releves of different local associations
from all round Mediterranean (Dalmatian coast,
Greece, Iberian Peninsula and Corsica and Sicily, all belonging
to Pino-Juniperetea class). Associations are
clearly divided into three groups.They are divided biogeographically,
as the western, central and eastern group
of their Mediterranean distribution of Pinus nigra s.l.
(Van Haverbeke 2009). On NMS scatterplot the associations
are grouped the same way. Group 1consists
of associations from Dalmatia and Greece and as such
makes the eastern biogeographical group. In this group
there are also, and very close ordinated together,
Ju nipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae and Seslerio
robustae-Pinetum pallasianae. Association Seslerio
robustae-Pinetum pallasianaeBarbéro & Quézel
1976 corr. Bergmeier 1990 was included by Bergmeier1990,
and following Horvat’s 1959 concept, into
alliance Orno-Ericion Horvatić 1959 and Erico-
Pinetea class. In contrast, Brullo & al. 2001 considers
that Seslerio robustae-Pinetum pallasianae association
should be classified into west Mediterranean classPinoJunipereteaRivas-

Group 2 consists of associations from Iberian
peninsula and as such makes the western Mediterranean
group. Group 3 makes the central Mediterranean
group with associations from Sicily and

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 55     <-- 55 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

Figure 3. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) ordination scatterplot of forest vegetation dominated by

Pinus nigra s.l.

Slika 3. Ordinacijski dijagram raspršenja metode Nemetričko višedimenzionalno skaliranje (NMS) šumske vegetacije

dominirane vrstomPinus nigra s.l.

Legend/Legenda: JPd –Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae Domac(1956) 1965, SOpd –Seslerio-Ostryetum carpinifoliae pinetosum
dalmaticaeHorvatić 1958, SSpd –Stipo-Salvietum officinalis pinetosum dalmaticaeHorvatić 1958, ERpd –Erico-Rosmarinetum pinetosum
dalmaticaeHorvatić 1958, OQipd –Orno-Quercetum ilicis pinosum dalmaticae Horvatić 1958, GEvpd –Genisto-Ericetum verticillatae
pinetosum dalmaticae Horvatić 1958, EmPd – Erico manipuliflorae-Pinetum dalmaticae Trinajstić 1977, QiPd – Querco
ilicis-Pinetum dalmaticaeTrinajstić 1986, PcPn – Pyrolo chloranthae-Pinetum nigrae Bergmeier 2002, SrPp – Seslerio robustae-Pinetum
pallasianaeBarbéro et Quézel 1976 corr. Bergmeier 1990, FgPs – Festuco gautieri-Pinetum salzmanniiRegato 1992, JpPs –Junipero
phoeniceae-Pinetum salzmanniiValle et al. 1988, Jptpc –Juniperetum phoeniceo-thuriferae pinetosum clusianae Sánchez-Gómezet Alcaraz
1992, HGpps –Hedero-Genistetum patentis pinetosum salzmannii Regato 1992, BQps –Bupleuro-Quercetum rotundifoliae pinetosum
salzmanniiRegato et al. 1995, JnPl –Junipero nanae-Pinetum laricionisBrullo et al. 2001, JhPc –Junipero hemisphaericae-Pinetum
calabricaeBrullo et Siracusa 2001).

According toDomac1965, Trinajstić1986 and there is also space for a detailed discussion. Our re1990
andHorvatić1958, all vegetation types found search has established thatJunipero sibiricae-Pinetum
containing Dalmatian pine were syntaxonomically clas-dalmaticae is completely different by its species assified
into the higher level syntaxa present in Croatia. semblage from all other communities dominated by
For all types of forests dominated by Dalmatian pine, Dal matian pine. Domac1965 classified Junipero
exceptJunipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae ,good ar-sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae into deciduous therguments
can be found for such classification, although mophillous forests of theQuercetalia pubescentisorder,

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 56     <-- 56 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

and theCarpinion orientalisHorvat1958 alliance from
Querco-Fagetea class, based on presence of more
species from these syntaxa. However species from this
order are present here with a low constancy. Further
more,Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae is not a
deciduous forest, it does not have deciduous tree
species, and bushes are present with a low constancy.
This association is rather dwarf shrub-like vegetation
dominated by Dalmatian pine.

Domac1965 specifiesPinus nigrasubsp.dalmatica
and Sesleria robusta as characteristic species and
Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana,Cerastium grandiflorum
Waldst. & Kit. and Cynanchum adriaticum
Beck (Fritsch) as differential species to differentiate
this vegetation from others containing Pinus nigra
subsp.dalmatica.All these species, except Dalmatian
pine, have a high indicator value (IV) for the specific
cluster in our analysis. In contrast,Pinus nigrasubsp.
dalmaticadid not have any statistically significant indicator
value because of its presence on both the
coastal part and on Biokovo Mountain.Therefore, Dalmatian
pine cannot be taken into account as a characteristic
species for the Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum

Trinajstić 1986 had a different approach. He
classified Junipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae into
Erico-Pineteaclass. Horvat 1958, while defining this
class, made species composition more relative, by
using mutual supraregional characteristics.Therefore
he indicated as class’characteristic species ones also
characteristic for other termophillous syntaxa. This
way there are as much arguments for classifying
Junipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae into Erico-
Pinetea and Erico-Pinetalia as there are for Quercetalia
pubescentis. Erico-Pinetea according to its
concept comprises termophillous coniferous forests,
but in a more continental areas without expressed summer
drought, which is present near the coast where
Biokovo mountain is situated. Similar concept represents
Bergmeier 1990 who classified Seslerio robustae-
Pinetum pallasianaealso intoErico-Pinetea.

The ISA showed species of different distribution
areas as indicator species.Juniperus communisL. ssp.
nana reveals a eurasiatic distribution, and, in this
study, is determined as one of the two most important
indicator species. Several indicator species show
rather montane and alpine conditions present in
Junipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae habitats. Together
with these species, there are three species of endemic
chorotype (Pignatti 2005):Sesleria robusta,
defined by Domac 1965 as characteristic, and Cynanchum
adriaticum and Cerastium grandiflorum as
differential species for this association. All three
species are distributed on the coastal part of Croatia
and DinaricAlps.Sesleria robustais, with the same indicator
value (IV) and probability (p) value asJuniperus
communisL. ssp.nana, the second most indicative
species. Out of these two species, Sesleria robusta
shows Mediterranean, andJuniperus communisL. ssp.
nanaalpine characteristics.S. robustais a species of
an endemic chorotype (Pignatti 2005). It is distributed
in the central Mediterranean (Pignatti 1982b),
and in central and southern Dalmatia (FCD 2007),
which gives a Mediterranean ecological character to
this association. On the other hand,Juniperus communis
L. ssp. nana is an alpine species (Vidaković
1982).This suggests that the habitats ofJunipero sibiricae
-Pinetum dalmaticae have both Mediterranean
and alpine ecological characteristics on Biokovo
Mountain. Based on these species and their characteristics,
we decided to carry out a new approach for the
syntaxonomical classification of Junipero sibiricae-
Pinetum dalmaticae.

In spite the fact there are not many floristic arguments,
but accepting the concept of mutual ecological,
bio geographical and structural characteristics, we believe
that Junipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae
should not be put inQuercetalia pubescentis, nor into
Erico-Pinetea, but into Pino-Juniperetea class. This
class was first described byRivas-Martínez 1964
in west Mediterranean and it comprises a group of
orophilous woody communities dominated by gymnosperms
occurring in Spain.The structure of this vegetation
is generally consisted by tree layer with more
or less open canopies, thick shrub layer, and rather
poor species assemblage. It also has relic character
(Pignatti 1985, 1998;Brullo &al. 2001). Nowadays
more associationsare describedfromPino-Juni pe
reteaclass,scattered throughout the Me diterranean
area.Vegetation belonging to this class is on arid soil
and is a final stage of climatogenous vegetation for
southern Eurosiberian and Mediterranean areas (Rivas-
Martínez &al.1991).Pino-Junipereteaclass
consists of orophilous communities dominated by
conifers and its range extends to the whole Mediterranean
basin.Brullo &al. 2001have expanded the
distribution area of thePino-Junipereteainto eastern
Mediterranean describing the eastern Mediterranean
alliance Berberido creticae-Juniperion foetidissimae
Brullo & al. 2001 which is distributed in Greece,
Cyprus and western and southern Anatolia. This alliance
belongs to Juniperetalia haemisphaericae Ri vas-
Martínez &Molina 1999 order distributed
in central and eastern Mediterranean.

Within the Pino-Juniperetea class the pioneer
orophilous vegetation counts, in general, quite a low
number of specialized species. In spite of this, the lack
of character species is compensated by their high biogeographic
significance and allegiance to a precise
ecological context.Pino-Junipereteacommunities ac

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 57     <-- 57 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

cepta large number of endemics and these species contribute
to territorial autonomy of these orophilous communities
(Brullo & al.2001).

The NMS in our study showed that according to
species assemblage Seslerio robustae-Pinetum pallasianae
association is the most resembling with Junipero
sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae . TheSeslerio robustae-
Pinetum pallasianae association is a pioneer
forest with a tree layer formed by a local subspecies of
Pinus nigra s.l., P. nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana
(Lamb.) Holmboe.The constant dwarf shrubJuniperus
communisL. subsp.nanais dominant in the shrub la yer,
while the grass species Sesleria robustais dominant
in the ground layer, just as in the Dalmatian pine
forests on Biokovo.This vegetation occurs on slopes at
altitudes from 1,000 and 1,300 m. It is an open pinewood,
primarily occurring on rocky soils (Brullo &
al. 2001). It was previously classified to the Quercetalia
pubescentis, as wasJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum
dalmaticaewhich shows similar conditions on habitats
where these associations are found.According to Habitat
Classification 2003, forests of Dalmatian pine and
Pallas’s pine forests are both classified in the same
classification group of Mediterranean pine forests with
endemic black pines.These forests are of the montane-
Mediterranean level, on dolomitic substrate dominated
by pines of the Pinus nigra group. Both Pinus nigra
subsp.pallasianaandPinus nigrasubsp.dalmaticaare
said to be distributed on the Balkan area (Habitat Classification
2003) and appear morphologically and genetically
quite similar (Isajev &al. 2004). Seslerio
robustae-Pinetum pallasianae is an association very
similar toJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae with
regard to ecological and phytogeographical attributes,
but also concerning its characteristic species structure.
This similarity can be explained by the fact that
Biokovo is somewhat similar, in some aspects, to

Beck-Mannagetta, G., 1901: Die Vegetationsverhältnisse
der illyrischen Länder. Wilhelm Engelmann,
Leipzig, 1–534.
Bergmeier,E., 1990:Wälder und Gebüsche des Niederen
Olymp (Káto Olimbos, NO-Thessalien).
Ein Beitrag zur systematischen und orographischenVegetationsgliederung
Griechenlands. Phytocoenologia,
18(2/3): 161–342., Stuttgart.
Bergmeier,E., 2002:Plant communities and habitat
differentiation in the Mediterranean coniferous
woodlands of Mt. Parnon (Greece). Folia
Geobotanica, 17: 309–331, Pruhonice.

Bogunić,F., E.Muratović,S.C.Brown, S.Šiljak-
Yakovlev,2003:Genome size and base
composition of five Pinus species from the
mountains outside the coastal DinaricAlps.The vegetation
similarity and the analogy of the phytocenoses of
Biokovo are especially distinct in comparison to mountains
in Macedonia and Greece (Lovrić 1987) where
the mentioned alliance is found.

Because Junipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae is
not climazonal vegetation, but rather a local association
found in specific conditions, it is rather hard to
classify it only by characteristic species. Characteristic
species for such specific and locally distributed associations
also have a local character, and are often endemic.
Therefore, this association has been difficult to
classify into the syntaxonomical systemonly according
to the number of characteristic species. Other features,
exceeding regional ones, should be included. These
specific features are recognised in the Habitat Classification
2004 where Mediterranean endemic pines forest
have a separate classification group.

Our analysis suggests that the association Domac
1965 described is well defined and differs from other
vegetation types with Dalmatian pine that occur in the
Dalmatian area. However, based on floristic and ecological
elements we consider that the association Junipero
sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticaeshould be classified in the
Pino-Juniperetea class, the Juniperetalia haemisphaericaeorder,
the Berberido craeticae-Juniperion foetidissimae
alliance. It can be expected that such a local
vegetation type includes local endemic taxa, such as
Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica regarding the phytogeographical
particularity of Biokovo Mountain, andPinus
nigrasubsp.pallasiana, of which both give their vegetation
type special characteristics. Further more, classifying
it intoPino-Junipereteaemphasises the relic character of
the Mediterranean forests dominated byPinus nigras.l.
which they without a doubt have (Brullo &al. 2001),
whereas a classification into any other class would repress
this aspect into the background.

– Literatura
Balkan region. Plant Cell Rep., 22: 59–63.
Borzan,Ž., A-Ž.Lovrić,M. Rac, 1992:Croatian
plant endems. In: Rauš Đ, editor. Forests of
Croatia: 223–236. Šumarski fakultet Sveučilišta
u Zagrebu and Hrvatske šume, Zagreb: 223–236.
Braun-Blanquet,J., 1964:Pflanzensoziologie. 3.
Aufl.Springer Verlag, Wien, NewYork.
Bray J.R., J.T. Curtis, 1957: An Ordination of the
Upland Forest Communities of SouthernWisconsin.
Ecological Monographs,Vol. 27 (4): 326–349.
Brullo S., G.Giusso del Galdo,R.Guarino,
2001:The orophilous communities of the Pino-
Juniperetea class in the Central and Eastern

Mediterranean area. Feddes Repertorium, 112
(3–4): 261–308, Berlin.

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 58     <-- 58 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

CvitanovićA., 1974:Geografija SR Hrvatske, knji

ga 6. Južno Hrvatsko primorje. Školska knjiga,


Domac R., 1961/1962: Šume dalmatinskog crnog
bora (Pinus dalmaticaVis. s.l.) na Biokovu. Acta
bot. Croat., 20/21: 203–223, Zagreb.

Domac R., 1965: Die Wälder der dalmatischen
Schwarzföhre (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. dalmaticaVis.
s.l.) in Jugoslawien. Ber. Geobot. Inst.
ETH, Stift. Rübel, 36: 103–116, Zurich.

Dufrene M., P.Legendre, 1997:- Species assemblages
and indicator species: the need for a flexible
asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs,
67: 345–366.

FCD, Flora Croatica Database [Internet], ver. 2.0, 2007
Jan – [cited 2008 May 10]; Available from:

Habitat classification [Internet], Interpretation manual of
European Union habitats – EUR25. European
commission DG environment. 2003Apr - [cited
2008 May 10].Available from: http://www.forestbiota.

HorvatI., 1950:Šumske zajednice Jugoslavije, II izdanje,
Nakladni zavod Hrvatske, Zagreb.
Horvat I., 1954: Pflanzengeographische Gliederung
Südosteuropas.Vegetatio, 5/6: 434–447.

HorvatI., 1959:Sistematski odnosi termofilnih hrastovih
i borovih šuma jugoistočne Europe. Biol.
Glasn., 12: 1–40, Zagreb.

Horvat I.,V. Glavač, H. Ellenberg, 1974:Vegetation
Südosteuropas. Gustav FischerVerlag, Stuttgart.
Horvatić S., 1928:Karakteristika flore i vegetacije
krša. Šum. List ,10/11: 399–463, Zagreb.

HorvatićS., 1958:Tipološko raščlanjenje primorske
vegetacije gariga i borovih šuma. Acta bot.
Croat., 17: 7–86, Zagreb.

Isajev V., Fady B., Semerci H. &Andonovski
V. 2004.Technical Guidelines for genetic
conservation and use for European black pine
(Pinus nigra). International Plant Genetic Resources
Institute, Rome, Italy.Available from:
pdf/1035.pdf via the INTERNET. Accessed
2007 May 10.

Kušan F.,1969:Biljni pokrov Biokova (flora i vegetacija),
Prirodoslovna istraživanja 37, JAZU,

Lovrić A-Ž., M. Rac,1987:Fitocenološka analiza

vegetacije biokovskog područja – morske i

kopnene fitocenoze. Acta Biokovica., IV: 97–

142, Makarska.

McCuneB., J.B.Grace,2002:Analysis of Ecological
Communities, MJM Software design, Gleneden
Beach, USA.

McCuneB., M.J. Mefford,1999:PC-ORD. MultivariateAnalysis
of Ecological Data.Version 5.0,
MjM Software, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, USA.

Pignatti S., 1982a: Flora d’Italia (vol. 1). Edagricole,
Pignatti S., 1982b: Flora d’Italia (vol. 3). Edagricole,

Pignatti S., 1985:The origin of the flora of Central
Italy: 75-90. In:Pedrotti F.(ed.) Excursion International
Phytosociologique 1982, Camerino.

Pignatti S., 1998:Pinete alpine, appeniniche e dell’
Etna: 171-199. In: Pignatti S. (ed.): I Boschi d’
Italia, Torino.

Pignatti S., 2005: Valori di bioinidicazione delle
piante vascolari della flora d’Italia. Braun-Blanquetia,
39, Camerino.

Regato P., J. Gamisans, M. Gruber 1995: A
syntaxonomical study of Pinus nigra subsp.
Salzmannii forests in the Iberian peninsula.
Phytocoenologia, 25(4): 561–578, Berlin-

Rivas-Martínez S., 1964: Esquema de la vegetatión
potential y su correspondencia con los suelos
de la Espana peninsular. Anal. Inst. Bot.
Cavanilles, 22: 341–405.

Rivas-Martínez S., J.C.Báscones, T.E. Díaz,

F.F. González,J. Loidi,1991: Vegetación
del Perineo occidental y Navarra. Itinera Geobot.,
5: 5–456, Leon.

Rivas-Martínez S., F.Fernandez-Gonzalez,

J.Loidi, 1999:Checklist of plant communities of
Iberian Peninsula, Balearic and Canary Islands to
suballiance level. Itinera Geobot., 13: 353–451,

fitosociológicas presentes en el subsector subbetico-
murciano (Espana).Annales de Biología,18
(BiologiaVegetal 7): 121–152, Murcia.

Stefanović V., 1977:Fitocenologija sa pregledom
šumskih fitocenoza Jugoslavije, IGKRO “Svjetlost”,
I izdanje, Sarajevo.

Trinajstić I., 1977:Osnovne značajke biljnog pokrova
otoka Hvara i njegov fitogeografski položaj
u okviru evropskog dijela Sredozemlja. Polj.
Šum., 23 (4): 1–36,Titograd.

Trinajstić I., 1986:Šume dalmatinskog crnog bora

– Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis)
Franco – sredozemnog područja Hrvatske. Polj.
Šum., 32 (1): 37–48,Titograd.

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 59     <-- 59 -->        PDF

Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

Trinajstić I., 1990:Šumska vegetacija otoka Brača.

Glas. Šum. Pokuse, 26: 183–205, Zagreb.
Trinajstić I., 1998:Fitogeografsko raščlanjenje klimazonalne
šumske vegetacije Hrvatske. Šum.
List, 9/10: 407–421, Zagreb.
Van der Maarel E., 1979:Transformation of cover-
abundance values in phytosociology and its effects
on community similarity.Vegetatio, 39 (2):

Van Haverbeke D.F.,2009:European black pine.
1/pinus/nigra.htm via the INTERNET.Accessed
2009 October 23.

Vidaković M., 1982: Conifers, monography and
variation, Sveučilišna naklada Liber, Zagreb.

Appendix1. Synoptic table of Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaeDomac (1956) 1965 andSeslerio robustae-Pinetum
pallasianaeBarbéro et Quézel 1976 corr. Bergmeier 1990.

Dodatak 1.
Sintetska tablicaJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae Domac (1956) 1965 i Seslerio robustae-Pinetum
pallasianae Barbéroet Quézel 1976 corr. Bergmeier 1990.

Junipero Seslerio

sibiricae -robustae-



Number of releves 14 13
Dominant canopy species

Pinus nigra s.l.A

Char ass. Seslerio robustae-
Pinetum pallasianae, Junipero-Pinetum dalmaticae

Sesleria robusta C V V
Juniperus communis subsp. nanaC V V

Species of Pino-Juniperetea

Juniperus sabinaC
II .

Char. alliance Berberido craeticae-Juniperion
foetidissimae, Juniperetalia haemisphaericae,

Chamaecytisus polytrichus . V
Daphne oleoides . V
Ferulago sylvatica . V
Centaurea pindicola . IV
Daphne blagayana . IV
Trifolium alpestre II III
Cardamine glauca . II
Cytisus procumbens . II
Aremonia agrimonioides . V
Polygala nicaeensis . V
Brachypodium sylvaticum . III
Eryngium amethystinum . III
Sanguisorba minor . III
Lonicera etruscaB . II
Teucrium chamaedrys I II
Juniperus oxycedrusB . V
Pinus nigra var caramaniycaA . V
Pinus nigra var caramanicaB . V
Pinus nigra var caramanicaC . V
Crocus veluchensis . III
Cyclamen hederifolium . III
Doronicum orientale . III
Galium rotundifolium . III
Luzula forsteri . III
Pteridium aquilinum . III
Veronica chamaedrys . III
Fragaria vesca I II
Leontodon cichoriaceus . II

Ranunculus sartorianus . II

Char. ass. Seslerio-Ostryetum, Ostryo Carpinion,
Quercetalia pubescentis, Querco-Fagetea

Acer monspessulanumB II .
Carex humilis II .
Cnidium silaifolium II .
Satureja montana II .
Trifolium alpestre II .
Colutea arborescensC I .
Crataegus monogynaC I .
Dorycnium germanicum I .
Fraxinus ornusB I .
Prunus mahalebB I .
Rhamnus rupestrisB I I
Sesleria autumnalis I .

Char. ass. Stipo-Salvietum

Salvia officinalis
II .

Char. class Brachypodio-
Chrysopogonetea .
Aethyonema saxatile IV I
Bromus erectus IV .
Sanguisorba muricata IV .
Euphorbia myrsinites III .
Brachypodium pinnatum II .
Dorycnium herbaceum II .
Sesleria juncifolia II .
Globularia cordifolia II .
Euphorbia spinosa I .
Stachys subcrenata I .
Teucrium montanum I .

Species of screes and rocky habitats
Cynanchum adriaticum IV .
Asplenium ceterach III .
Asplenium ruta muraria III .
Asplenium trichomanes III .
Campanula portenschlagiana III .
Arabis muralis II .
Inula verbascifolia II .
Linaria cymbalaria II .
Moltkia petraea II .
Cephalaria leucantha I .
Rumex scutatus I .


Abies borissii regisA . V
Quercus daleschampii . V

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 60     <-- 60 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

Rosa arvensis . IV Hieracium biokovoense II .
Fagus sylvatica . III Hieracium psamogenes II .
Abies borissii regisB . II Lathyrus pratensis II .
Berberis cretica . II Lilium martagon subsp. cattaniae II .
Crataegus orientalis . II Luzula multiflora II .
Ilex aquifolium . II Poa bulbosa ssp. vivipara II .
Erica arborea . I
Poa pumila II .
Rhamnus rupestris . I
Ranunculus montanus subsp.
Sorbus torminalis . I
carinthiacus II .
Thalictrum aquilegifolium II .
Serpentin species
Thymus balcanus II .
Festuca callieri . III
Tragopogon balcanicus II .
Anthemis cretica . II
Valeriana tuberosa II .
Asperula thessala . II
Cerastium campanulatum I .
Asyneuma linifolium . II
Leontodon crispus I .
Centaurea grisebachii . II
Medicago orbicularis I .
Cuscuta epithymum . I
Ononis spinosa I .
Danthonia alpina . I
Plantago lanceolata I .
Thymus candilicus . I
Rhamnus fallaxC I .
Forest species
Rhamnus saxatilisC I .
Lathyrus alpestris . IV
Veronica dentata subsp. austriaca I .
Luzula sylvatica . IV
Genista carinalis . V
Potentilla micrantha . IV
Carlina acanthifolia . IV
Silene multicaulis . IV
Galium exaltata . IV
Bromus benekenii . II
Hieracium bauhinii . IV
Limodorum abortivum . II
Platanthera chlorantha . IV
Physospermum cornubiense . II
Thymus sibthorpii . IV
Primula vulgaris . II
Viola riviniana . IV
Anthoxanthum odoratum . II
Bunium montanum V .
Brachypodium rupestre . II
Muscari botryoides V .
Briza media . II
Polygala vulgaris V .
Campanula spathulata subsp.
Cerastium grandiflorum IV .
sprunerana . II
Arenaria serpyllifolia III .
Carlina vulgaris . II
Carduus candicans subsp. cyllindicus III .
Centaurea deusta . II
Cerastium viscosum III .
Dactylis glomerata . II
Festuca rubra subsp. fallax III . Dactylorhiza romana . II
Lotus hirsutus III . Hieracium pilosella . II
Satureja acinos III . Lilium chalcedonicum . II
Trifolium pratense var. nivale III . Lychnis viscaria . II
Armeria canescens II . Thesium linophyllon . II
Asperula longifolia II . Veronica officinalis . II

Appendix 2. Syntaxonomy of mentioned syntaxa.

Dodatak 2. Sintaksonomija spomenutih sintaksona.
Quercetea ilicisBr.-Bl. 1947
Quercetalia ilicisBr.-Bl. (1931) 1936
Quercion ilicisBr.-Bl. 1936
Orno-QuercetumilicispinosumdalmaticaeHorvatić 1958
Quercoilicis-PinetumdalmaticaeTrinajstić 1986
Bupleuro-Quercetumrotundifoliae(Br.-Bl. &O. deBolos1957) Rivas-Matrinez1982pinetosumsalzmanniiRegatoetal. 1995
Hedero-Genistetum patentisMateo 1983pinetosum salzmanniiRegato 1992

Erico-CisteteaTrinajstić 1985

Cisto-EricetaliaHorvatić 1958
Cisto-EricionHorvatić 1958

Erico-Rosmarinetum pinetosum dalmaticaeHorvatić 1958

Genisto-Ericetum verticillatae pinetosum dalmaticaeHorvatić 1958

Erico-PineteaHorvat 1959
Erico-PinetaliaHorvat 1959
Orno-EricionHorvat 1956
Erico manipuliflorae-Pinetum dalmaticaeTrinajstić 1977

ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 61     <-- 61 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

Querco-FageteaBr.-Bl. Et Vlieger 1937
Quercetalia pubescentisBr.-Bl. (1931) 1932.

Carpinion orientalisHorvat (1954) 1959
Seslerio-OstryetumcarpinifoliaepinetosumdalmaticaeHorvatić 1958
Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae Domac(1956) 1965

Brachypodio-ChrysopogoneteaH-ić (1956) 1958
Scorzonero-ChrysopogonetaliaH-ić et Horv. (1956) 1958
Chrysopogoni-SatureionHorv. Et H-ić 1934
Stipo-SalvietumofficinalispinetosumdalmaticaeHorvatić 1958

Pino-JunipereteaRivas-Martinez 1964
Juniperetaliahaemisphaericae Rivas –Martínez & Molina 1999
Berberido creticae-Juniperion foetidissimae Brullo & al. 2001
Seslerio robustae-Pinetum pallasianae Barbéro et Quézel 1976 corr. Bergmeier 1990
Berberidion aetnensisBrullo, Giusso et Guarino 2001
Pineion calabricaeBrullo, Giusso et Guarino 2001
Junipero hemisphaericae-Pinetum calabricae Brullo et Siracusa 2001
Roso-serafinii-Juniperion nanaeBrullo, Giusso & Guarino 2001
Junipero nanae-Pinetum laricionisBrullo et al. 2001

Pino-JuniperetaliaRivas-Matrinez 1964

Pino-Juniperion sabinaeRivas-Goday (1956) 1960

Festuco gautieri-Pinetum salzmanniiRegato 1992

Junipero phoeniceae-Pinetum salzmannii Valle et al. 1988

Juniperion turiferaeRivas-Martinez 1969

Juniperetum phoeniceo-thuriferae pinetosum clusianae Sánchez-Gómezet Alcaraz

Quercetalia pubescentis-petreaeKlika 1933
Abietion cephalonicaeHorvat et al. 1974
Pyrolo chloranthae-Pinetum nigrae Bergmeier 2002

SAŽETAK: Junipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticaeDomac (1956) 1965 karakteriziraPinus
nigrasubsp. dalmatica (Vis) Franco – endemična svojta prisutna
u obalnom području te nekim otocima južne Dalmacije, ali i na južnim
padinama Dinarida (Biokovo), na nadmorskim visinama od 350 do 1000 m.
Uz jak utjecaj mediteranske klime koja je izražena do viših dijelova planine,
zbog svoje nadmorske visine prisutni su i oslabljeni planinski i alpski uvjeti na
samim vrhovima. Budući da je Biokovo na granici mediteranske i eurosibirsko-
sjevernoameričke regije, u istraživanoj zajednici prisutne su vrste iz obje
regije, što povećava posebnost zajednice.

Mnogi znanstvenici su se do sada bavili sintaksonomskim položajem zajedniceJunipero
sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae, ali je uvijek opisivana kao jedinstven
tip vegetacije.

Šume s crnim borom (Pinus nigras.l.) često u svojoj strukturi imaju velik
broj lokalnih, za razliku od zonalne vegetacije. Zato zajednice s crnim borom,
prisutne na različitim područjima mediterana, imaju mali broj međusobno podudarajućih
vrsta i više izražene lokalne florističke karakteristike, nego što to
imaju drugi, zonalni, tipovi vegetacije.

Prema trenutnim sintaksonomskim rješenjima, istraživana zajednica pripada
submediteranskoj sveziCarpinion orientalisunutar reda Quercetalia pubescentis
u razredu Querco-Fagetea. Cilj ovoga rada bio je analizirati
ekološke i sintaksonomske karakteristike zajednice Junipero sibiricae-Pinetum

Za analiziranje podataka upotrijebili smo klastersku analizu, analizu
prema indikatorskim vrstama (ISA) te nemetričko višedimenzionalno skaliranje


ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2011 str. 62     <-- 62 -->        PDF

Z. Sedlar, V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić: NUMERICALAND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICALANALYSIS OF ... Šumarski list br. 3–4, CXXXV (2011), 1-3

Pomoću klasterske analize te ISA, uspoređivali smo sve sintaksone u kojima
dominira dalmatinski bor, dok smo pomoću nemetričkog višedimenzionalnog
skaliranja (NMS) uspoređivali šume u kojima dominira vrsta Pinus nigra

s.l. u ostalim dijelovima Mediterana (Grčka, Pirenejski poluotok, Korzika i Sicilija)
sa istraživanom zajednicom u Hrvatskoj.

Numeričke i sintaksonomske analize pokazuju da se zajednicaJunipero si-
biricae-Pinetum dalmaticaesa Biokova razlikuje od ostalih vegetacijskih tipova
s dalmatinskim borom. Klasterska analiza pokazala je da se Junipero
sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticaejasno odvaja od ostalih sintaksona (Slika 2) u
kojima dominiraPinus nigrasubsp. dalmatica, dok su pomoću ISA (Tablica 1)
utvrđene indikatorske vrste koje ju odvajaju, ponajprijeJuniperus communis

L.subsp.nanaSymeteSesleria robustaSchott, Nyman & Kotschy. NMS metodom
pokazana je bliskost zajedniceJunipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticaes
grčkom zajednicomSeslerio robustae-Pinetum pallasianaeBarbéro & Quézel
1976 corr. Bergmeier 1990 (Slika 3) te njihovo zajedničko grupiranje odvojeno
od ostalih mediteranskih zajednica s crnim borom, grupiranih prema
goegrafskom području na kojemu su prisutne (zapadni i centralni mediteran).
Ova je zajednica također pionirska, a sloj drveća formiraPinus nigrasubsp.
pallasiana. Struktura ovih zajednica je također međusobno vrlo slična, sloj
drveća u kojemu dominira vrstaPinus nigras.l. s manje više otvorenim sklopopm
krošanja, gusti sloj niskog grmlja koje uglavnom čini Juniperus communissubsp.
nanai relativno mali broj prizemnih vrsta u kojemu dominira
Sesleria robusta. Obje zajednice javljaju se na sličnim nadmorskim visinama
te imaju slične ekološke i biljnogeografske karakteristike, a prema klasifikaciji
staništa iz 2003 uvrštene su u istu skupinu, Mediteranske šume s endemskim
vrstama crnoga bora. Time smo utvrdili da bi istraživana zajednica
trebala biti klasificirana unutar razreda Pino-Juniperetea, reda Juniperetalia
haemisphaericae i istočnomediteranske sveze Berberido creticae-Juniperion
foetidissimae. Zajednice prisutne u ovome razredu raspršene su po cijelom
području mediterana, a vegetacija koja mu pripada nalazi se na suhom tlu i
završni je stadij klimazonalne vegetacije za južna eurosibirska i mediteranska
područja. Zajednice razreda Pino-Juniperetea sadržavaju mnoge endemske
vrste koje pridonose njihovoj teritorijalnoj autonomiji.

Sličnost zajednice Junipero sibiricae-Pinetum dalmaticae sa istočnomediteranskim
zajednicama i njezino uvrštavanje u spomenute sintaksone fitocenološki
i ekološki je potvrđena.

Ključne riječi: Biokovo, multivarijatna analiza, Pinus nigra subsp.
dalmatica, sintaksonomija