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ABSTRACT: The issue of occurrence and size of red heart and the possibilities
of its limitation in beech assortments have been researched in worldwide
measures for a long time. There are many ecological, phenological,
geological factors which more or less influence its formation. The results of a
long-term research of different silvicultural treatment confirmed that a big
crown of crop trees creates conditions to achieve the target diameter with
a low assumption of red heart formation and so rises the quality and price of
produced assortments. The different shaping of tree crowns on two investigated
compartments had a significant impact on the size of dehydrated zone and
subsequently on the frequency of red heart. On the contrary, it did not have
a significant impact on the size of red heart, even though red hearts in the both
investigated forest stands were small. We also found the different qualitative
structure of assortments in both types of investigated compartments.

Key words:Fagus sylvaticaL., silvicultural methods, red heart formation,
sapwood, dehydrated zone

Red heart (RH) and growth stresses appearing in1969, 1973a, 1973b, Sachsse1991, Schmidtand
beech species are the main phenomena which influenceMehringer1989, Sorzand Hietz2008, Torelli
the quality of raw wood and so they decrease signifi-1984, Torelli2001,Zycha1948)etc.
cantly the financial value of the produced range of raw

Findings from the specialized literature point out that
wood (Beckeretal. 2005).The topic of RH formation

beech RH is subjected by, in fact, two main factors: for-
in beech wood species has been the subject of the rese

mation of the dehydrated zone (DZ) and by entering of
arch for long. There were published many extensive

air into this zone (Bosshard1974, Torelli1984,
monographs and papers about the structure, formation,

Torelli2001,Zycha1948).The absence of one of
and development of red heart from the viewpoint of

these factors excludes formation of RH. Decreasing of
physiology, macroscopic and microscopic changes of

vitality the parenchyma cells and breaking down ofthe
beech wood (Bosshard1967, 1968, Hösliand

water transport system in central part of a stem is a conBosshard1975,
Kochetal. 2003,Necesany1958,

sequence of decreasingphysiological activity of tree,
impacted mainly by ageing. Thiscentral DZisalso


Dr.Vladimír Račko,Technical University Zvolen, Faculty of

calledasa ripeormaturewood.Water/gaz ratioin the

Wood Sciences and Technology, Department of Wood Science,
T.G.Masaryka 24, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic;

vesselsof DZ isimportantfor a potentialRH formation

(Sachsse1967, Torelli1984).The wound of a trunk


Prof. Dr. Milan Saniga, Technical University Zvolen, Faculty of

and branches causes that air enters into vessel system of

Forestry, Department of Silviculture, T.G.Masaryka 24,
960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic;

sapwood (SW) and DZ.Thepenetration rateof airinto


Prof. Dr. Igor Čunderlík, Technical University Zvolen, Faculty

thezonesSW and DZ has different partialpressuresin
ofWood Sciences and Technology, Department of Wood

the stemandthe atmosphere(Bosshard1967, Zie-

Science,T.G.Masaryka 24, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic;

gler1968).The relatively vital parenchyma cells (adja

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cennt to vessels) react to the embolism by plugging the
vessels with tyloses (Zycha1948,Necesany1958,
BonsenandKucera1990). Simultaneously,oxidativereactionstranstormthe
inlivingcellsintocolouredphenol substances.
Subsequently,colouredphenol compoundsform parenchyma
cells aredepositedinthe surroundingxylem
(Bauchand Koch2001). RHformationwill terminatewhenthewound
isclosed.An important factor in
this process is the closure rate of injuries to new growth
rings of wound wood (ShigoandLarson1969).

The RH formation (frequency and size) froma ma cros
copicviewis significantlyinfluenced by theage,
diameter at breast height(DBH)of stem (Knokeand
andHöwecke1991,Raczetal. 1961, Walter
andKucera1991), the occurrence ofinjury (Büren
1998, Keller1962, Kucera1991, Raunecker
1956, Wernsdörferetal. 2005), crown size and
socio logical status of the tree in a forest stand (Cho vanec
1974, Torelli1984, Vasilievič1974), forest
soil and geological bedrock (Büren1998,Furst
et al. 2006,Schmidtetal. 2005)etc.

Recently,a lot of authors have been dealing with an
assessment of forest stand quality impact and the impact
of tending and regeneration silvicultural methods on the
log quality from the viewpoint of the RH frequency
(Kadunc2006, Knoke2003, Kudraetal. 2003,
Prka2003, Schmidtetal. 2005). The knowledge

that generally applies is that incase of formation and
frequency of RH, forest stand age, trunk diameter and
also in some cases, group of forest types (Mahlerand
Höwecke1991)are of a significant importance. Sustaining
the whole section of beech trunk in an active profile
depends on the capacity of its crown. Considering
the value production of beech wood, the lower third of a
trunk is preferred.This part represents 90% of its value
production. This knowledge is used during intensive
crown thinning focusing on bigger target diameter
which is then achieved considerably sooner.The intensive
crown thinning has an impact on lower frequency of
RH occurrence in case when we accept the target diameter
of 40–50 cm (Kadunc2006,Kudraetal. 2003).
Silvicultural methods which create large growth space
for crop trees and so the shorter time to achieve thick dimensions
decrease the risk of wood devaluation by RH
(Knoke2002,Knokeand Wenderoth2001).

As mentionedabove,there are a lot of factors influencing
formation and dynamics of development of RH
in beech stands.The aim of the paper is to evaluate the
impact of two silvicultural techniques which create different
conditions for crown development, RH occurrence
in homogenous beech forest stands, while other
factors (soil type, stand origin, slope aspect, altitude,
etc.) are the same.

MATERIALSAND METHODS – Materijali i Metode

To verify the stated aim sample trees of beech were
chosen and processed.To maximize the elimination of
other factors the sample trees were chosen from two
compartments(CMTs)placed next to each other when
each of them was cultivated by a different silvicultural
technique. The forest stands belong into the Forestry
Enterprise of the Technical University in Zvolen and
have been monitored in detail for research purposes for
30–45 years by the employees of the Department of
Silviculture at the Forestry Faculty in Zvolen.

In the CMT513 were set up two sample permanent
plots (SPPs) in 1980. In the CMThas been used quality
crown thinning up to 1980. In 1986 and 1991 there was
done selective thinning, from 1991 to 2009 there was
done selection cutting twice with the volume of 70–80

The CMT514b is located next to the CMT513. It

has the same parameters group of forest types. The
CMT514b presents a set of four SPPs which have been

cultivated by crown thinning with a positive selection

since 1966 focusing on maximal release of crowns of

future crop trees.Before every thinning since that time

there were done measurements of selected dendrometric
parameters. The relative thinning weight in the
thinning interval of 5 years up to 1991 was at 16–18%.
In the 1991 the last release increment thinning was
done with the volume 24–26% from the forest stand.

The altitude of the both CMTs is 510–540 m, the
slope aspect is south-west, slope declination 20–25%,
and geological parent rock is andesite, soil type Cambisoil,
group of forest types: Fagetum pauper. Dendrometric
parameters were measured in 1986, 1991, 1997,
2001, and 2009. From two CMTs there were chosen 14
dominant trees (7+7 trees from each CMT), in the age
of 93–112years.The crown volume of selected trees

(C) was calculated according to (Jurča1968)


C= (./8) ×b× l(1)
wherebis the crownwidth andlis the crown length in
meter. The final dendrometric parameters are in the
Table 1.

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Figure3Dependency of the tree height on DBH. (a) – CMT513 with a selection structure, (b) – CMT 514b with release increment thinning

Slika 3.Ovisnost visine stabla o prsnom promjeru (DBH). (a) – CMT 513 preborna struktura sastojine, (b) – CMT 514b sastojina njegovana
visokom proredom

Figure 4Dependency of DBH on crown volume. (a) – CMT513 with a selection structure, (b) – CMT 514b with release increment thinning

Slika 4.Ovisnost prsnog promjera (DBH) i volumena krošnje na uzorkovanim stablima. (a) - CMT 513 preborna struktura sastojine,

(b) – CMT 514b sastojina njegovana visokom proredom
ter growth of a tree trunk.This significant finding proves
the fact that there are more than 55% of other factors
not considered by us which take animpact on the increment
of sample trees at DBH in a selection forest.

From the point of view of RH occurrence we can
see (Fig. 5) that its frequency in trees and logs coming
from CMT 513 is considerably lower than the frequency
in the CMT514b.

On contrary, the influence of various ways of forest
stand tending on portion of RH was not proved as sta-

Figure 5Frequency of RH in trees and logs for individual CMTs

Slika 5.Frekvencija pojavnosti neprave srži (RH) na stablima i
trupcima na istraživanim plohama (CMTs)

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Table 1Basic dendrometric characteristics of beech sample trees from the individual SPPs.

Tablica 1.Osnovne dendrometrijske značajke reprezentativnih bukovih stabala na trajnim istraživačkim plohama (SPPs)

Tree age at
Dob stabla na
prsnom promjeru
Tree height
Crown length
Crown volume

The data were measured on standing trees before cutting in December 2009

Podaci su uzimani na dubećim stablima prije sječe u prosincu 2009. godine

The marked trees were cut, delimbed, bucked into
12–14 m transportation lengths and transported into the
forest depot.The sample removal was carried out during
bucking of logs according to the scheme on Fig. 1.

Samples –Uzorci



Figure 1
Cutting scheme of samples.Variable log length
(l1, l2…ln) depended on quality assessment

Slika 1.Shema prereza uzoraka. Duljina trupca (l1, l2,...ln)
ovisna o procijenjenoj kvaliteti sortimenta

In total there was taken 60 samples, out of which 10
samples contained RH + DZ (Fig. 2a) and 50 samples
contained only DZ (Fig. 2b).The first sample type was
cut from the butt part.The position of the other sample
types in a trunk depended on the length of bucked logs
and it moved depending on the stated quality of logs
within 2–6 m.The position (distance) of every sample
and every log from the butt was recorded in meters.
The quality of every log according to (STN EN 1316-1
2000)was stated.

In half an hour after cutting the sample, a visible dry
DZ appeared on the cross section of the sample. The
samples were planed from one side and photographed in
the JPG format of 24-bit RGB in resolution 1536 x 1024
pix, 300dpi (Fig. 2).

Figure 2Cross section of samples (a) – the samples containing both zones (RH and DZ) (b) – the samples containing only DZ

Slika 2.Poprečni prerez uzoraka (kolut) (a) – uzorci koji imaju nepravu srž (RH) i piravost (DZ). (b) – uzorci koji imaju samo piravost (DZ)

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The diameter of samples and the width of the DZage (CA) of the trunk were counted.The ratio of DZ to
and RH were measured.At the same time, the age ofRH was calculated as ratio of DZ width or RH and diathe
tree at DBH and at other heights and the cambialmeter of the trunk as a percentage.

RESULTS – Resultati
The analysis of theTable 1 and Table 2 points outtrees, obtained from the CMT 513, have,at partially
that the DBH structure of tree samples for a differentdifferent age,higher parameters of the DBH and volusilviculture
technology is different. In case of the CMTmes of the down third of a trunk. Higher parameters of
513, the DBH are statistically significantly bigger thanquantitative production are the result of a considerably
CMT514 b. In CMT513, where trees of an upper levelhigher capacity of assimilation apparatus of a crown.
are autonomous in growth during practically whole ob-The analysis of production parameters of beech samservation
time, creates assumptions of more intensiveples confirmed, despite their partially different age,that
diameter growth. Moreover, it is necessary to add toselection structure of a stand creates significantly good
this fact partially the factor of age, whereas observedqualitative assumptions for its quantitative and value
samples are approximately 10 years older.The sampleproduction.

Table 2T-tests of mean values of tree characteristics for investigated CMTs.

Tablica 2.T-test srednjih vrijednosti značajki stabala istraživanih sastojina (CMTs)

CMTTree agep-valueDBHp-valueCrown lengthp-value
OdjeliDob stabalap vrijednostPrsni promjerp vrijednostDuljina krošnjep vrijednost

Meanvalues(within the same column mean ± standard deviation (SD)) werecalculatedbased onmeasurementstakenin december
2009. Student´st-test(p-value – level of statistical significance, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ns - not statistically
significant, p > 0.05).

Srednje vrijednosti (u istoj koloni dane su srednje vrijednosti i standardna devijacija) temeljem mjerenja iz prosinca 2009.
godine. Student-ov t-test (p-vrijednost – stupanj statistički značajne razlike – ns nije statistički značeno).


Table 3Comparisonof crownvolumes C(m) developmentduring the last23 yearsfor investigated CMTs

Tablica 3.Usporedba volumena krošanja Ck
(m3) tijekom 23 godine motrenja na istraživanim plohama CMTs

175± 69
197± 74

Within the same column (mean ± SD).Student´s t-test(p-value – level of statistical significance, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01,
***p < 0.001, ns (not statistically significant, p > 0.05).

U istoj koloni dane su srednje vrijednosti i standardna devijacija. Student-ov t-test (p-vrijednost – stupanj statistički značajne

razlike – ns nije statistički značeno).

The average crown volumes forindividualCMTs
duringthe past23 yearssignificantly differed, withthe
exception ofthe lastgrowthperiod2001–2009.The average
crown volumes (in theyears1986–2001)inthe
CMT513was about 23–35% higher,thanin theCMT
514b (Table 3).

The analysis of correlation strength between tree
samples DBH and their height for the whole period of
observation (23years) is characterized in the Fig. 3a, 3b.

While we are assessing this dependency on CMT513
(Fig. 3a), determination coefficient has a significantly
higher value, i. e. in case of growth relations between
the diameter and the height of sample trees there is a
stronger dependency.

The analysis of the relationship between the volume
of a crown and the DBH of beech sample trees is interesting.
In case of the sample trees from the CMT513 the
determination coefficient is significantly lower than for
sample trees from the CMT514b, which were cultivated
by crown thinning with a positive selection (Fig. 4a, 4b).

The mentioned fact confirmed that beech sample
trees in the stand cultivated by crown (increment) thinning
with the support of crop trees take up to 68% impact
on diameter growth of a trunk. On the other hand,
crown of beech sample trees which are in the upper layer
of selection forest in a autonomous position for a long


time have determination coefficient R= 0.453, i. e. the

capacity of a crown takes only 45% impact on a diame

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tistically significant, but average values in both obser-sume that considering higher age of the trees from
ved CMTs were considerably low (Table 4).CMT513 (109.7 years) the portion of DZ compared to
the CMT514b (97.7 years)should be higher.But the

From the viewpoint of the size of created zone of
results present an opposite trend. (Table 2, Table 4).

DZexpressed by its diameter proportionwe can as

T-tests of mean values of DZ portion (%) and RH portion (%) for investigated CMTs

Tablica 4.T-test srednjih vrijednosti postotnog udjela piravosti (DZ) i neprave srži (RH) na istraživanim plohama (CMTs)

CMT–OdjeliDZ portion –DZ udjelp-value –p vrijednostRH portion –RH udjelp-value –p vrijednost

Within the same column (mean ± SD).Student´s t-test(p-value – level of statistical significance, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01,
***p < 0.001, ns (not statistically significant, p > 0.05).

U istoj koloni dane su srednje vrijednosti i standardna devijacija. Student-ov t-test (p-vrijednost – stupanj statistički značajne
razlike – ns nije statistički značeno).

Table 5
Linear regression dependences between DZ or SWwidth (cm) and CA(year) or H in trunk (m) for investigated

Tablica 5.Linearna regresija ovisnosti širine piravosti, odnosno bijelji (SW) izražena u cm s kambialnom starosti debla (CA)
(godina) ili visinom debla (H) za istraživane plohe (CMTs)

Dependency –Ovisnost
y= a + b.x
CMT–Odjeli 513CMT–Odjeli 514b
p vrijednost
p vrijednost
DZ width × CAin trunk
DZ širina × CA debla-3.5710.11930.63520.0000***-0.1640.1050.57940.0015**
DZ width × H in trunk
DZ širina × H debla9.702-0.2790.57360.0005***10.746-0.3320.61080.0007***
SWwidth × CAin trunk
SW širina × CA debla9.7770.2210.59420.0002***3.7820.2810.69620.0000***
SWwidth × H in trunk
SW širina × H debla35.145-0.6120.63670.0000***31.728-0.6890.56650.0020**

H –height in trunk (m) from bottom of tree; a – absolute coefficient, b – regression coefficient, R – correlation coefficient,

p-value – level of statistical significance correlation coeficient *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ns (not statistically signi

ficant, p > 0.05), y – dependent variable,×– independent variable

H –visina debla (m); a – apsolutni koeficijent, b – regresijski koeficijent, R – korelacijski koficijent, p-vrijednost – stupanj
statistički značajne razlike korelacijskog koeficijenta *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ns (nije statistički značajno,
p > 0.05), y – zavisna varijabla,×– nezavisna varijabla

Table 6
Theverticaldistribution and position oftheRH in

Between the width of DZ or SWand CAof a trunk
trunk. RHL(m) means RH length at the specified

there were found increasing linear regression depenposition
in trunk.

dences with relatively high correlation coefficients

Tablica 6.Vertikalno rasprostiranje neprave srži (RH) u

(Table 5).The given fact points out at the relatively

deblu stabla. RHL (m) označava visinu do koje se

strong influence of age on DZ and SWformation.

rasprostire neprava srž (RH)

Visina do koje se
rasprostire neprava srž
5131540 - 5
513856 – 8 and 23 – 24
514b420 – 2
514b30 – 5
514b370 – 7 and 14 – 16
514b151 – 6
514b338 – 11

Table 6 presents distribution and position of RH
along the trunk length. It can be clearly seen that RH in
most trees in both forest stands occurs in 0-8m distance
from the butt.Therefore, the wound, which was a cause
of such RH formation, occurred at tree butts and was
caused by a wound of butt parts. For the sample trees
No. 85 (CMT513) and No. 33 and 37 (CMT514b) the
wound was caused by dieback of thick branches of yet
standing trees in the lower parts of the crowns.

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Different qualitative structure of produced assort-
ments coming from the observed forest stands, which
contained RH at least at one of the cross sections, can be
seen at Fig. 7.The analysis of quality of produced logs
confirmed that the higher quality and so the value yield
was achieved for the assortments coming from the CMT
513. Significantly higher portion of logs was achieved in
quality classes A and B. Compared to this, there was
a considerably lower proportion of logs in class C.
Figure6Surface wounds in the bottom of the trunk documenting their relation to RH formation. (a) – large injury (tree
no.37) lead to expansion of RH up to 7m and decay up to 2 m. (b) – small injuries (tree no.3) did not affect the RH
formation.The RH have been formed in height of 0 to 5 m from a larger branch in 2.8 m height.
Slika 6.Dokumentacija utjecaja oštećenja žilišta na formiranje neprave srži (RH). (a) – Veliko oštećenje (stablo br. 37)
dovelo je do širenja neprave srži (RH) do visine od 7 m i truleži do 2 m. (b) – Malo oštećenje (stablo br. 3) nije
imalo utjecaja na nastanak neprave srži (RH). Pri tome je neprava srž na visini od 0 do 5 m bila formirana zbog
velike grane na visini od 2,8 m.
Figure 7Quality structure of logs from individual CMTs
Slika 7.Kvalitativna struktura prereza sa istraživačkih ploha CMTs

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To start with, it is necessary to remember that the
analyzed experiment is based on the exact data on
change dynamics of chosen dendrometric parameters
of chosen trees of the same ecotype in the same ecological
and geological conditions with a different silviculture
technique. Homogenization of ecological and
geological conditions creates assumptions to find a relatively
clear answer to the questions on the influence
of different silviculture techniques on the formation of
RH for beech.

The results confirmed that autonomous and long-
term position of beech trees with the crown length longer
than a half of a tree height in the upper layer of selection
system forest (CMT513) creates conditions to
achieve target DBH of 45–50cm (age 100–110 years)
with a very low assumption of RH formation.

Similar results were achieved in case of crown thinning
with a positive selection (CMT514b) and grading
its relative thinning strength to24–26% of the taken
volume capacity of beechstand in the age of 80 years.
To achieve target beech diameter in the age of 100–110
years it is necessary to form its crown according to the
above mentioned parameters (Mahlerand Höwecke
1991). By this way the assumptions are created
for fully functional activity of the whole section of
a trunk.The found parameters correspond with the requirements
ofBachmann(1990)for quality forming
of the lower third of a trunk which in case of beech presents
60% of its volume and up to 90% of its value production.

The achieved results about frequency of RH confirmed
that we can help to decrease it by the different way
of silviculture treatment. Especially the selection system
achieved considerably lower frequency of RH
(Fig. 5). In comparison with literature (Mahlerand
Höwecke1991)it was considerably lower for the
same age of 100-120 years and for the trunk diameter at
the DBH 40–49 cm. By Prka (2003), who investigated
this issue of beech stands in a regeneration phase in the
age of 100 to 110 years, the frequency of RH was approximately

The issue of the changing size of DZ (Table 4) can
be understood as an important restricting factor of formation
and size of RH.Therefore, a keyfactor ofinjurieson
the bottom of tree waspartiallyeliminated by
a widezone ofSW.The air entering into the trunk had
to overcome a bigger distance between the trunk surface
and DZ. Largeinjuries at the bottom occurredonly

inafew cases (Fig. 6a), more often small wounds were
closedby new formed wound wood even before air enteringinto
DZ (Fig. 6b).

With changing CA at the different height of a trunk
there appears the change of DZ width (Table 5). From
the viewpoint of frequency of RH it is apparent that the
RH occurred especially in the parts of trunk with higher
CAand predominantly in those trees where the DZ was
wider. However, we can see from the Table 6 that RH
was formed in a few cases in the upper parts of trunk.
Wernsdörferet al. (2005)pointed that only some
wounds and branch marks on the bark are responsible
for the RH formation.Torelli(2001)defines the formation
of dry central zone in the middle of a beech
trunk as a dynamic process analogical towards the RH
formation for other wood species, while a tree adjusts
the SW size (active transpiration area) to the crown
size. In general, it applies that the age has a dominant
influence on ageing and dieback of parenchyma and so
on the increase of DZ portion at the expense of SW

On the other hand,the influence of crown volume
contributes to alteration of portion between SW and
DZ width (Torelli1974, 1984).Also, quality of the
crown (leaves size, foliage density, ration of shadowy
and lighted leaves as well as their proportional or disproportional
distribution) have influence on average
annual growth ring width (Assmann1961)and transpiration
flow of water through the trunk (Bartelink
1997, Deckmyn et al. 2006).This must consequently
show at the higher capacity of vital parenchyma which
is capable to fulfill a supplying function in a tree. However,
the crown development ofhealthytreesshouldbe
understoodas a dynamicprocess, whichismainlyinfluenced
byageandperformed thinning activities. Different
methodsof thinning activitiesperformed on
investigatedCMTsinthe last23yearscausedthat the
averagecrownvolumes (apart from the last 8 years)
differed significantly(Table 3). Itcaused differences in
final average DZportions(Table 4).

The achieved results entitle us to assume that even
in the higher age of trees it is possible to influence positively
the ratio between SWand DZ by a suitable silviculture
activity leading to an increase of the crown size
and quality from the photosynthesis point of view and
so contribute to a decrease of frequency of occurrence
and size of RH.This will consequently show at the quality
and price of the produced assortments.


This publication is the result of the project imple-Research & Development Operational Programme fun-
mentation Centre of Excellence „Adaptive Forest Eco-ded by the ERDF.
systems“, ITMS: 26220120006, supported by the

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podacima (Mahler and Höwecke 1991) učestalost pojavnosti neprave srži
(RH) bila je značajno niža pri sličnim faktorima starosti od 100-120 godina
i prsnom promjeru 40–49 cm. Prema Prki (2003), koji je istraživao problematiku
obnove bukovih sastojina, učestalost pojavnosti neprave srži bila je oko
50 %. Dobiveni rezultati zbog toga nas upućuju na pretpostavku da se i u zreloj
dobi stabala može pozitivno utjecati na odnos širine bijelji i piravosti
(DZ). Primjerenim uzgajivačkim zahvatima koji su usmjereni na povećanje
volumena i kvalitete krošnje smanjit će se pojavnost neprave srži (tablica 4
i slika 5). To će imati i značajan utjecaj na povećanje kvalitete i cijene izrađenih
sortimenata (slika 7).

Ključne riječi:Fagus sylvaticaL., uzgajivački zahvati, neprava srž,
bijelj, piravost

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SAŽETAK: Neprava srž (crveno srce) i poremećaji u rastu debla bukovih
stabala glavni su fenomeni koji značajno utječu na kvalitetu sirovog drva,
a time značajno smanjuju financijsku vrijednost izrađenih sortimenata (Bec ker
et al 2005). U posljednje vrijeme velik broj autora istražuje utjecaj uzgajivačkih
metoda (njege i obnove sastojina) na kvalitetu drvnih sortimenata s
gledišta pojavnosti neprave srži. (Knoke 2003, Kudra et al. 2003, Prka 2003,
Schmidt et al. 2005, Kadunc 2006). Ranija istraživanja pokazala su da dob
sastojine, promjer debla i sastojinski oblik (Mahler a Höwecke 1991) imaju
značajan utjecaj na veličinu i učestalost pojavnosti neprave srži. Održavanje
aktivnog parenhima u stanju visoke vlažnosti na presjeku bukovog debla ovisno
je o volumenu krošnje stabla. Intenzivne visoke prorede utječu na manju

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učestalost pojavnosti neprave srži, ako promatramo ciljani prsni promjer od
40 do 50 cm (Kudra et al. 2003, Kadunc 2006). Intenzivne visoke prorede
utječu na ranije dostizanje ciljanog promjera debla.

Postoji mnogo čimbenika koji utječu na nastanak i dinamiku širenja neprave
srži u bukovim sastojinama. Zbog toga je cilj ovoga rada procijeniti
utjecaj različitih šumskouzgojnih zahvata koji utječu na razvoj krošanja stabala,
te tako i na pojavnost i raširenost neprave srži uz homogenost sljedećih
čimbenika (vrsta sastojine, tip tla, dob, nagib terena, nadmorska visina i sl.).

Kako bi se otklonio utjecaj navedenih čimbenika, odabrane su dvije sastojine
koje se nalaze u neposrednoj blizini, dok su uzgojni zahvati u njima bili
različiti. U sastojini na istraživačkoj plohi (CMT 513) 1980. godine postavljene
su dvije trajne plohe (SPPs). Do 1980. godine bila je njegovana visokom
proredom. Godine 1986. i 1991. u sastojini je izvršena selektivna proreda,
a od 1991. do 2009. god. dva puta je izvršena preborna sječa u iznosu od
70–80 m3ha-1. Druga sastojina 514 b ima četiri trajne plohe (SPPs) koje su
osnovane 1966. godine visokom proredom usmjerenom na maksimalno oslobađanje
prostora krošanja odabranih stabala. Intenzitet proreda za razdoblje
od 5 godina do 1991. godine bio je na razini 16–18 %. U toj je godini izvršena
posljednja proreda s intenzitetom 24–26 % drvne zalihe. Dendrometrijske
značajke stabala mjerene su 1986, 1991,1997, 2001. i 2009. godine. Iz obje je
sastojine odabrano po 14 stabala starosti u rasponu od 93 do 111 godina (tablice
1 i 2). Nakon rušenja i rezanja kolutova (sekcioniranja debla) na čelima
je izmjerena širina neprave srži (RH) i piravosti (DZ).

Iz tablice 3 vidljivo je da se srednje vrijednosti volumena krošanja na istraživanim
plohama značajno razlikuju s obzirom na različite metode prorede
koje su provedene u protekle 23 godine. Iznimka je posljednje desetljeću
2001–2009. Srednja vrijednost volumena krošnje (razdoblje 1986–2001) za
plohu CMT 513 23–35 % je veća nego na plohi CMT 514 b. Daljnje produkcijske
značajke istraživanih sastojina vide se iz korelacijskih odnosa između
visine stabla i prsnog promjera (slika 3) i između prsnog promjera i volumena
krošnje (slika 4). S obzirom na veće srednje vrijednosti volumena krošanja tijekom
razvoja, istraživačka ploha CMT 513 (tablica 3) imala je značajno niži
stupanj pojavnosti neprave srži (RH) od pojavnosti na plohi 514b (slika 5).
Isti faktor (tablica 3) nije značajno utjecao na udjel neprave srži (RH) (tablica
4). Iz tablice 4 također se može vidjeti da je razvoj krošnje utjecao na srednje
vrijednosti udjela piravosti (DZ) (tablica 3). Niže vrijednosti veličine piravosti
na istraživačkoj plohi CMT 513 prema plohi CMT 514 b (tablica 4) posljedica
su prevencije oštećivanja debla, što je dovelo i do smanjenja pojavnosti
neprave srži (RH).

Starenjem kambija širina piravosti i bijelji na stablima na obje se istraživačke
plohe linearno povećavala (tablica 5). Suprotno tomu, rastom debla (H)
oba su se faktora smanjivali (tablica 5). Statistički značajne korelacijske zavisnosti
također ukazuju na jak utjecaj navedenih faktora. Analizom kvalitete izrađenih
sortimenata (slika 7) potvrđena je viša kvaliteta sortimenata
s istraživačke plohe CMT 513 u klasama A i B (STN EN1316-1). Suprotno
tomu, udjel klase C bio je značajno niži nego li u sastojini 514 b.

Rezultati istraživanja potvrdili su da stablimično i dugotrajno uzgajanje
bukve s krošnjom većom od polovice visine stabla u gornjoj etaži stvara preduvjete
za postizanje željenog prsnog promjera od 45 do 50 cm (starost 100 do
110 godina) s vrlo malom pojavnosti neprave srži (RH). Stoga je uzgojne zahvate
potrebno usmjeriti na formiranje kvalitetne donje trećine debla, koja
prema Bachmanna (1990) predstavlja tek 60 % njegovog volumena, ali 90 %
vrijednosti produkcije. Istraživana sastojina CMT 513 imala je značajno nižu
učestalost pojavnosti neprave srži (RH) (slika 5). U usporedbi s literaturnim