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UDK 630* 453 (Lymantria monacha) (001)




ABSTRACT: The paper, based on a literature review, presents an overview
of the nun moth outbreaks in Czech forests from 1784 to 2010. A database of
outbreaks was created and presently contains 2,557 records. The oldest written
record dates from 1784. The greatest calamity of nun moth outbreaks occurred
during the years 1917–1927. The last nun moth outbreaks appeared in
the years 1993–1996. A map of high-risk areas in the Czech Republic was
created based on this historical data.

Key words:Lymnatria monacha, historical outbreaks, Czech Republic

The nun moth (Lymantria monacha/L./) is a strongly
polyphagous pest feeding on coniferous and deciduous
trees. Spruce (Piceasp.), larch (Larixsp.) and pine
(Pinussp.) are typical host plants but the nun moth also
causes extensive defoliation of other tree species during
its outbreaks (Komárek1931, Schwenke1978).
Although the phytophagous nun moth is considered one
of the most damaging insects in European coniferous
forests and can cause severe damage in managed forests
(Altenkirch1986,Baier1995,Bejer1986, Cescatti
& Battisti1992, Fischer1942, Grönblom
et al. 1959,Klimetzek1979,Köhler1958,Nietsche
1891, Romanyk1958, Sedláček1911,
Schimitschek1947, Schmutzenhoferet al.
1975, Sliwa& Sierpinski1986, Uhlíková&
Nakládal2010, Wilke1931,Zederbauer1911),
there are relatively few papers focusing on and evaluating
general historical outbreaks. In the Czech Republic,
there is currently no integral overview of nun moth outbreaks;
we can usually find only short articles describing
the progress and spread of the outbreaks (Blažek
et al. 1932, Mokrý1923, Liška& Šrůtka1994).
However,Švestka(1968) described a small review
of nun moth outbreaks in southwestern Moravia. It is

H.Uhlíková, O. Nakládal, P. Jakubcová, M.Turčáni
Department of Forest Protection and Game Management,
Faculty of Forestry andWood Sciences, Czech University of Life
Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
also possible to find an evaluation of the situation for
prediction in a given year or following year (Liška
1996 and 1999,Liška&Šrůtka1995,Zahradník
et al. 1995).Afundamental publication illustrating the
largest outbreaks of the nun moth in the Czech Republic
in the 1920s was published byKomárek(1931).

Catastrophic damages to forests caused by the nun
moth have been known in the past. Its first massive expansion
in Central Europe was recorded in 1449.At
least 26 significant periods of increase were recorded
from that time until the late 19th century (Hošek
1981).Komárek(1931),Mokrý(1923) andBlažeket
al. (1932) described disasters that occurred dur


ing the first half of the 20century. In the period
1946-1995, six outbreaks were recorded in Poland
(Głowacka1996). In Germany, Poland and the
Czech Republic, the nun moth outbreaks were observed
in 1993–1995 (Baier, pers. comm., Głowacka
1996,Liš ka&Šrůtka1994). In 2003, the nun moth
caused defoliation in Poland and Germany (Möler&
Wenk,pers. comm., Wanneretal. 2005).

More than 100 historical records were found in the


Czech Republic throughout the 20century (e.g.
Anonymous a,Anonymous 1969a,Anonymous 1969b,
Hošek1958, Hošek1959, Hošek& Žaloudík
1964, Hošek& Žaloudík1969, Kruml1962,

Kruml1963,Kruml1968b,Ministr1964, Mini

str1970, Novák1969b, Novák1969e, Novák

1970, Novotný1965, Schleger1974, Tlapák

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H. Uhlíková, O. Nakládal, P. Jakubcová, M. Turčáni: OUTBREAKS OF THE NUN MOTH (Lymantria monacha) ...Šumarski list br. 9–10, CXXXV (2011), 477-486
1960,Tlapák1963,Tlapák1964, Tomandl1962,1962, Tlapák1965b, Tomandl1956, Tomandl
Žaloudík1961). Extensive outbreaks and total defoli-1971).The largest calamity of the nun moth in the Czech
ation were recorded mainly after 1900, and this situationRepublic was in the 1920s. In the Central Bohemian re-
lasted more or less until 1940 (e.g.Anonymous b,Ano -gion, optimal conditions for nun moth development
ny mous c, Anonymous d, Anonymous 1966, Horákwere created by reduced precipitation during the later
1960, Horák1965a, Horák1965b, Horák1968,years. Since 1996 there has been no other major outHorák1969,
Hošek1961, Hošek1964, Hošekbreak. However, there aretraditional outbreak regions
1967, Hošek& Tomandl1965, Kruml1964b,withhigher population densities of the nun moth(the
Kruml1968a,Kruml1969,Materna1964, Min-Brdy Hills and Bohemian-Moravian Highlands).
istr a, Ministr b,Ministr1963,Novák1967b, No-

In this paper, we present a quantitative and qualitavák
1967c, Novák1968a, Novák1968b, Novák

tive historical overview of the available data on nun

moth outbreaks in the Czechlands.

2. MATERIALAND METHODS – Materijali i metode
Historical data of the nun moth outbreaks

Povijesni podaci o gradacijama smrekovog prelca

During theperiod 2007–2010 a largeamountof his-ofthe Forest Management Institute (FMI) were the main
toricalrecordsofnun moth outbreaks was collectedandsource ofinformation. It was necessary to visitthecenprocessed.
Informationwasobtainedfrombooks, pro-tralarchive ofFMIplus itsbranchesin theCzechReceedings,
journals, surveys, protocols, andalsofrompublicandcontacttheforestdistricts.The collected data
recordsin the forest districts. Besides these writtencovered the period from 1784 up to 2010. We found
records, oral interviews with foresters were also impor-more than 2.5 thousands of records.The main nun moth
tant.The historicalessaysandsurveysfrom the archivesoutbreaks periods are inTable 1.

Table 1Selected main periods of the nun moth outbreaks in the Czech Republic.

Tablica 1.Odabrana glavna razdoblja gradacija smrekovog prelca u Češkoj

godina gradacije
1784-1790Krukanicethe oldest written evidence of defoliation
najstariji podatak o defolijaciji successful
Tomandl (year unknown)
Tomandl (nepoznata godina)
1785Doupov Mountainseradication (setting fires at night)
uspješna eradikacija (paljenjem vatri noću)
Schleger (1974)
1788-1790Carlsbad Highlandsthe oldest complete records of defoliation;
heavy/P. abies/24 000 m
najstariji potpuni podatak o defolijaciji;
jaka defolijacija/P. abies/24 000 m3
Ministr (1970)
1838-1840Rakovník, Křivoklát,
P. sylvestrisKruml (1964a), Novák (1966)
1899Sokolíčkoheavy/36 ha
jaka defolijacija/36 ha
Horák (1987)
1892Žirovnice26 haKruml (1968b)
1901-1903all regions /
sva područja
autochthonous outbreaks in lower altitudes
autohtone gradacije u nižim
nadmorskim visinama
Hošek (1981), Novák (1970)
1906-1910Ledeč n. Sázavou,
Ronov n. Doubravou,
Jindřichův Hradec
region, theTřeboň
region, Děčín, Frýdlant,
Zákupy, Grábštejn,
the Drahan Highlands,
lower altitudes of the
Jeseníky Mountains
heavy/3 600 ha; ended through
polyhedral disease
jaka defolijacija/3 600 ha;
okončana poliedrijom gusjenica
Tomandl (1962)

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Impartiality of the prediction and the smallest meanIsaaks& Srivastava(1989), Wackernagel
square error of prediction (prediction variance) are en-(2003) andOlea(1999).
sured. A more detailed description can be found in

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION – Rezultati i rasprava
The first map (Fig. 1) shows spots (on the level of
forest districts) where the nun moth occurred in relation
to feeding intensity during the years 1784–2010
(the oldest written record comes from 1784).There are
areas where the nun moth was recorded at least once.
This map however, does not reflect the fact that the nun
moth could occur there repeatedly.

As can be seen, there are regions where the nun moth
has never been recorded. It is mainly in south Moravia
and the Šumava Mountains, upperparts ofthe Giant
Mountains, part of the Labe Basin, theAš region, as well
as others.The reason for the absence of this species was
probably an absence of host plants (at lower elevations)
or adverse climatic conditions (in high-elevation forests).

The second map (Fig. 2) gives a better idea of which
areas were attacked repeatedly. From a historicalview,
the riskiestregions appear to be the Bohemian-Mora

vian Highlands,Třeboň Basin, Brdy Hills, Nový Bor region
and Opava region. In the long run, it shows that an
optimum range of nun moth has shifted in the Czech
Republic. Based on historical data, the Třeboň Basin
(average altitude is 457 m a. s. l.) was determined as a
risk region where the nun moth defoliated pine there,


mainly up to the end of the 19century (Anonymous
1967). Nowadays the hot spots do not arise in lower altitudes.
On the contrary, the Brdy Hills (average altitude
is 640 m a. s. l.) are attacked more than the historical
data would indicate. It is obvious that the hot spots are
shifting to the higher altitudes. Somedistortionin the
mapis due to numerous records from the largest
calamity of the nun moth in the Czech Republic in the
1920s.The nun moth has also occurred in the regions
where there were not optimal conditions for development
(with regard to altitude and climatic conditions).

Figure 1
Location of the nun moth outbreaks (on the level of forest districts) in relation to feeding intensity in the Czech Republic
(1784-2010). 4 – defoliation 70-100%, 3 – defoliation 25-70%, 2 – defoliation <25%, 1 – sporadic occurrence, . – not identified.

Slika 1.Područja gradacija smrekova prelca (na prostornoj razini gospodarske jedinice) u odnosu na jačinu defolijacije u Češkoj
(1784-2010). 4 – defolijacija 70-100%, 3 – defolijacija 25-70%, 2 – defolijacija <25%, 1 – sporadična pojava,
. – jačina defolijacije nepoznata.

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Period/yearof Locality/
godina gradacijepodručje
1917-1927Bohemia, west
the greatest catastrophe of the nun moth
in the Czech Republic;P. abies,
P. sylvestris, L. decidua, A. alba,
P. menziesii, broadleaves
razdoblje najjače gradacije smrekova
prelca u Češkoj;P. abies, P. sylvestris,
L. decidua,A. alba, P. menziesii,listače
Horák (1982), Hošek (1981),
Hošek &Tomandl (1965),
Komárek (1931), Novák (1966),
Novák (1967a), Novák (1967b),
Novák (1967c), Novák (1968b),
Novák (1969a), Novák (1969e),
Novák (1972), Novák (1975),
Tlapák (1965a),Tlapák (1965b)
1931-1938Křivoklát, Milevsko,
Světlá nad Sázavou,
Nové Syrovice
ended through polyhedral disease
okončana poliedrijom gusjenica
Hošek (1981), Novák (1966),
Novák (1967b), Novák (1975)
1947Teplá, Sokolíčko52 000 m
Hošek (1981), Ministr (1970),
Tlapák (1963)
1965-1967Náměšť n. Oslavou,
Jaroměřice, Jemnice
chemical spraying
suzbijanje kemijskim insekticidima
Hošek (1981), Švestka (1968)
1993-1996Hořovice, Zbiroh,
Brdy Hills,
Jindřichův Hradec,
Pacov, Jihlava, Trutnov,
Dvůr Králové, Horní
Maršov, Boskovice
heavy/P. abies, L. decidua/34 000 ha;
chemical spraying
jaka defolijacija/P. abies, L.
decidua/34 000 ha; suzbijanje
kemijskim insekticidima
Liška & Šrůtka (1998),
Zahradník et al. (1995)

Data processing–
The database LYMONDATof nun moth outbreaks in
the CzechRepublic was created onthe basis ofhistorical
data survey. Today, there are2,557 records. The databasecontainsinformationincludingtheyearorperiod

of occurrence, thelocation ofoutbreaks and extent of
nun moth feeding, feeding level, volume of nun moth
timber harvested, and information about host tree
species, if it wasmentioned.
Each period was divided into individual years for the
purpose of digitalization. Information about defoliation
levels in the primary resources isquitevariable(and
sometimes very brief).Therefore,eachrecordwasassigned
anintensity rating(ranging from1–4).Arating of
4indicates data where we knowthatthere was heavy defoliation
(70–100%). A rating of 3 equals strong nun
moth feeding (25–70%), 2 corresponds tolight feeding
(less than 25%).Arating of1includes datawith a sporadicoccurrence
ofnun moth. In some cases the feeding
level was not identified.
Using information from this database, two maps of
feeding levels were created. In order to visualize the spatial
distribution of individual records inArcGIS,WGS84 coordinates
were assigned to individual records. Special care
was taken to avoid duplication of records within one year.
The first map is a simple map showing the feeding intensity
in stands. For thepurposeof thisarticle,points of nun moth
occurrence wererecorded on the level of forest districts.

Obrada podataka

For the second map we gave cumulative values to
each point and subsequently, spatial interpolation using
Ordinary Kriging was used to predict the risk outbreak
regions of the nun moth.The correlation between source
data, expressed in as a variogram, determines the estimated
value at an unsampled location.The variogram is
a function describing the degree of spatial dependence
of data investigated. It is defined as the expected
squared increment of the values between two locations
(Wackernagel2003). Formally, this is given as:


.(h) = .[z(xi)–z(xi
+ h)]

2N (h)


wherez(xi) is variable at positionx,z(xi+h) denotes a
variable separated by vector h (lag), with specified
magnitude and direction. N(h) is the total number of
pairs used to compute the value of the variogram for a
specified lag.

Ordinary Kriging is a univariate stationary technique
for spatial interpolation.This is of the form:


Z(x) =..iZ(xi)subject to..i=1


where Z(x) is an estimator at site xgiven by the


linear combination of random variablesZ(xi) at sitesxi.

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Figure 2
Spatial distribution of the nun moth outbreaks using Ordinary Kriging based on historical data (1784–2010).The observed values
are cumulative values of feeding intensity. Red colour means regions with the highest feeding intensity (difference in ranges of
observed and interpolated values are due to the smoothing effect of interpolation and its inability to reproduce extreme valuesin
observed data in some cases).

Slika 2.Prostorna distribucija gradacija smrekova prelca dobivena metodom običnog kriginga temeljenog na povijesnim podacima u
razdoblju 1784. – 2010. g. Točkasti podaci predstavljaju kumulativne vrijednosti jačine defolijacije. Crvena boja označuje područja
najjačih defolijacija (diskrepancija točkastih-opažanih defolijacija i obojanih-geostatistički izvedenih podataka, posljedica je
izglađivanja uslijed interpolacije i nemogućnosti prikaza ekstremnih vrijednosti defolijacije u nekim slučajevima).

There are areas where the nun moth damaged foreststhe nun moth particularly defoliated pine stands in lower
only in 1920s (e.g. Jeseníky Mountains, Ostrava region,altitudes in the years 1830–1890 (Kruml 1964a, Novák


north part of Ore Mountains).
1966), at the end of the 19century and the beginning of


the 20century, the nun moth began to attack spruce

Spruce, pine and larch are typical host plants. During
(Anonymous 1951,Tlapák1965a). It shows a shift of

a massive expansion, caterpillars have also fed onAbies
optimum conditions for development towards the high

sp., and broadleaves such as Quercussp., Fagussp.,
lands. Extensive planting of spruce monoculture also

contributes to the change of host plant.

Tiliasp.,Salixsp. andPopulussp.(Komárek1931,
Křístek& Urban2004). Rašek(1922) mentionsAn interesting fact is that the nun moth feeding
that caterpillars are also able to defoliate clover fieldsbegan in larch stands and caused a total defoliation
(Trifoliumsp.), Vaccinium myrtillus (L.), Calluna vul-there (Brdy Hills in 1993–1996) (Uhlíková & Nakládal
garis(L.) in times of need. Defoliation ofFraxinussp2010), althoughKomárek(1931) mentions that the
however, has never been recorded. Historical recordsnun moth does not feed in pure larch stands.
show an important change of main host plant.Whereas

5. CONCLUSIONS – Zaključci
The oldest written record of nun moth outbreaks was widespread.The last nun moth outbreaks appeared
in the Czech Republic comes from 1784.The greatestin the years 1993–1996.
calamity of the nun moth was during the years

In the Czech Republic, there are regions where the
1917–1927, especially in Bohemia, where the damage

nun moth has never caused damage to forests (e.g.

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south Moravia and the Šumava Mountains, upperparts
ofthe Giant Mountains and others). Many large areas
were defoliated only during the greatest catastrophe
outbreak in the 1920s. From the forestry aspect, the
most important areas are those where the nun moth has
the most optimal conditions for development (primary
outbreak foci). In these areas, the nun moth reproduces
most regularly and the earliest within a givenarea.The
Brdy Hills and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands are
such areas nowadays. A main host plant of the nun

moth was pine to the beginning of 20century and
spruce replaced it in the following decades.

Vanhanenetal. (2007) shows that predicted climate
change will affect the distributions of the nun
moth by causing a range shift towards the pole. Based
on our historical data it is evident that there has been a
distribution shift from lower to higher elevations over
the long term. This confirms the assumption that the
distribution area is changing, and therefore the foresters
should take thisinto account.


This paper was written as part of the research project
NAZVQH71094 “The using of dendrochronology for
reconstruction of fluctuation patterns of nun moth and
gypsy moth in central Europe”. The paper was also
partly supported by the project CIGA(Czech University
of Life Sciences Prague) “Factors influenced success of
bark beetle (Ips typographus) attack of spruce stands”.
Special thanks are due to Václav Pernégr and Pavel
Frank (Hořovice Division, MilitaryForestsand Farms
Brdy), Ivo Mühlhansl (Náměšť nad Oslavou forest district,
Forests of the Czech Republic), Ladislav Kopřiva
(Pelhřimov forest district, Forests of the Czech Repub

lic), Josef Šefl (Strašice), Dominika Mansfeldová, Karel
Pokorný, Vincenc Zlatník, Marie Benešová, Stanislav
Carbol, Otakar Holuša,Vlasta Janatková (Forest Management
Institute (in Czech ÚHÚL), Milan Švestka (senior
researcher), Petr Šrůtka (Czech University of
Agriculture Prague, Faculty of Forestry andWood Sciences)
and Jan Liška (Forestry and Game Management
Research Institute) for assistancein searching forhistorical
data.We also thank Tomáš Hlásny (National Forest
Centre, Forest Research Institute, Slovakia) for support
with spatial data analysis.

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SAŽETAK: Smrekov prelac (Lymantria monacha) izraziti je polifag, čije se
gusjenice hrane iglicama četinjača i lišćem mnogih listača. Smreka (Piceasp.),
ariš (Larixsp.) i bor (Pinussp.) najčešće su napadnuti ovim štetnikom, ali jake
defolijacije mogu se pojaviti i na drugim vrstama tijekom njegovih gradacija.
U Hrvatskoj je rijedak i javlja se tek sporadično, podjednako u različitim šumskim
sastojinama. Unatoč velikom broju dokumentiranih gradacija u Europi,
mali je broj radova u kojima se analizira prostorno gledište njegove pojave.
Prvi masovni napad smrekovog prelca zabilježen je u Središnjoj Europi 1449.
godine. Do kraja 19. stoljeća zabilježeno je barem 26 značajnijih razdoblja
njegovih gradacija. U Češkoj je evidentirano više od 100 pojava defolijacije
smrekovog prelca tijekom 20. stoljeća. Izrazite i prostorno značajne gradacije
bilježene su uglavnom nakon 1900. godine i takva je situacija potrajala do
1940. godine. Najveće kalamitete smrekov prelac uzrokovao je u Češkoj u dvadesetim
godinama 20. stoljeća. Od 1996. do danas nisu zabilježene izrazitije
gradacije. Različita učestalost pojave, kao i jačina defolijacije u pojedinim dijelovima
teritorija, autorima rada bili su poticaj za pokušaj izrade prostorne
analize i izrade karte povišenog rizika ovog defolijatora na području Češke.
Koristeći metodu običnog kriginga, analizirali su i geostatistički obradili više
od 2 500 izvornih povijesnih podataka defolijacija i gradacija smrekovog
prelca na području Češke od 1784. do 2010. godine. Glavna razdoblja i područja
masovne pojave i najžešćih gradacija prikazana su u Tabli ci 1. Intenzitet
defolijacije preuzet iz brojnih literaturnih i ostalih izvora klasiran je u 4 kategorije
(vidi sliku 1). Rezultat ovako klasiranih izvornih podataka prikazan je
na dvije karte (slika 1 i slika 2). Na slici 1 prikazana je distribucija pojave i žestine
defolijacije smrekovog prelca, svedeno prostorno na gospodarske jedinice.
Na slici je vidljiva neujednačena distribucija registriranih defolijacija,
kao i činjenica da u dijelu teritorija nikada nije zabilježena šteta od ovog defolijatora.
Ovo se objašnjava izrazito nepovoljnim klimatskim uvjetima (visoka
planinska područja) ili izostankom biljke domaćina (u nižim područjima).
Jasno se uočavaju područja jakih gradacija (crvene točke). Na drugoj slici jasnije
se razaznaje koja su područja napadnuta jače i češće (crve na boja). Također,
autori dolaze do zaključka da je u promatranom razdoblju došlo do
prostornog pomaka optimalnog područja pridolaska i gradacija smrekovog
prelca. Taj se pomak dogodio u smislu povećanja nadmorske visine na kojima
su se javljale gradacije. Na početku istraživanog razdoblja najžešće gradacije
bilježene su na srednjoj nadmorskoj visini od 457 m n.m. Intenzitet i učestalost
gradacija kasnije se javlja na srednjoj nadmorskoj visini od 640 m n.m. Autori
zaključuju kako je očigledno kako se izvorišta gradacija “sele” na veće nadmorske
visine. Također, analizom podataka utvrđeno je kako je glavna vrsta
na “udaru” ovog defolijatora početkom 20. stoljeća bio bor, dok se u desetljećima
koja su sljedila najveće štete bilježe na običnoj smreci. Dijelom se kao
razlog tomu navode obimna pošumljavanja ovom, nekad popularnom šumskom
vrstom drveća. Bez obzira na nedostatke kojih su autori svjesni u korištenju
metode kriginga, zaključuju kako se ovim putem, zahvaljujući velikom
broju podataka, može pokazati prostorna dinamika pojave smrekovog prelca
na teritoriju Češke, uočiti “izvorišna područja” odakle započinju gradacije,
kao i trend prostornog pomaka kojega povezuju s promijenjenim stanišnim
uvjetima. Kao jedan od mogućih scenarija utemeljenih na recentnim klimatskim
promjenama (povišenje temperature) navode pomicanje gradacijskih žarišta
ovog važnog defolijatora Središnje Europe na veće nadmorske visine,
odnosno više geografske širine. Prevedeno na naše geografsko područje, ovo
bi značilo da bi smrekov prelac mogao postati još rjeđi u područjima gdje je i
do sada bio prisutan u niskoj gustoći populacije.

Ključne riječi:Lymantria monacha, povijest gradacija, Češka