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M. Pernek, M. Županić, D. Diminić, T. Cech: VRSTE RODAPHYTOPHTHORA NABUKVI I TOPOLAMA... Šumarski list – Posebni broj (2011), 130-137

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Duncan, C. Delatour, 2003: Phytophthora

SUMMARY: The genus Phytophthora, belongs to the Oomycota, parasitizes
on many species of woody plants, causing decay of roots which is often followed
by climatic extremes. Phytophthora spores can survive in soil for
several years waiting for optimal conditions for germination, zoosporangium
is formed, from which zoospores are released. The zoospores are chemotactic
swimmers which actively find tree fine roots that become infected. The disease
develops over a long number of years, but certain factors can significantly
speed up the decline of trees. Bleeding lesions on the trunk (Figure 1–3), increasing
of the amount of dead branches, and lack of lateral shoots are typical
symptoms ofPhytophthorainfection which was registered on two different tree
species in Croatia (Fagus sylvaticaandPopulus x euroamericana). The consequence
was a reduction of surface of leaves or the decline of vitality, and ultimately
death of the tree. Given the importance of the problem in the world,
and the potential dangers of Croatian forests, the aim of this study was to determine
the presence of Phytophthora species in Croatia, and to assess the
threat of their expansion. Investigations were carried out in Bjelovar and Osijek
area in beech and poplar euro-american clones (Table 1). Samples of bark
and soil were taken from trees with clear symptoms of the disease, and analysed
in the laboratory. Parts of the samples were transferred to culture media
(PDA, V8), and molecular analysis of suspected isolates was performed (Figure
5). Soil samples were processed by immersing in water, and pears, young
leaves of oak, rhododendron young leaves and fresh apples were used as baits.
The obtained samples were processed by surface sterilization and placed on
several types of culture media, as mentioned above. Obtained pure cultures
(isolates) were analyzed by molecular tehnics.

The results show that the presence of P. cambivorawas confirmed on beech
andP. cambivoraandP. ganopodyideson poplar. The occurrence of P. cambivorais
related to changes of extreme dry and wet periods (Figure 6). The results
on poplars shows that clone 275/81 have been significantly damaged by
species ofPhytophthora.

Key words:Phytophthora, root decay, beech, poplar clone