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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2013 str. 29     <-- 29 -->        PDF

Taking Europe by storm: a first insight in the introduction and expansion of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in central Europe by mtDNA
Europa osvojena u trenu: prvi uvid u prodor i širenje kestenove ose šiškarice (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) u središnjoj Europi putem mitohondrijske DNK
Dimitrios N. Avtzis and Dinka Matošević
The chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, poses one of the latest additions to the long list of exotic pests that invaded Europe. After its introduction in Italy, chestnut gall wasp expanded rapidly in Europe in a very short period of time. Analysis of a polymorphic mtDNA locus from nine European populations verified the Chinese origin of this invasion. Moreover, the results revealed traces of a severe bottleneck during the phase of introduction that reduced considerably the genetic diversity. It was also shown that the rapid and successful post-introductory expansion was accomplished by a single mtDNA haplotype that has spread in three European countries. The paradox of successful establishment despite the absence of genetic diversity could be attributed to the synergistic effect of several agents. Uniparental propagation and general-purpose genotypes, lack of natural enemies and human-mediated transport seem to have facilitated the invasion and subsequent expansion of D. kuriphilus in Europe.
Key words: chestnut gall wasp, invasive pest, post-introductory expansion, population bottleneck
Invasive species are considered a major threat to biodiversity (Williamson 1996; Walker & Steffen 1997; Kamata & Gottschalk 2007; Scalera 2010) as well as an increasing economic concern (Vitousek et al. 1996; Wilcove et al. 1998; Pimentel et al. 2000). It is now widely recognized that biological invasions are favored by dispersal events linked to human activities (Lockwood et al. 2005), which provide vectors for dispersion, and could promote the introduction in new areas and accelerate their expansion rate (Shigesada et al. 1995). Invasive organisms include organisms of both flora (Chandler et al. 2008; Zhang et al. 2010) and fauna (Roman & Darling 2007; Zachos et al. 2007). Insects particularly, with their (usually) minute size, that helps them remain undetected, in concert with their flying ability can very easily be introduced to new areas, becoming invasive