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in the soil (Battisti 1994). But in our study, soil temperature didn’t had effect on mortality of the prepupae, because there were no days, when the temperature was below 0 °C (min. 0,0 °C) and the period of low temperatures lasted short time. Other reason for reduction of the abundance of prepupae is the presence of species from family Soricidae, which food are insects and whose traces were noticed in the whole area. On the prepupae from the soil we also noticed the presence of entomopathogenic fungi, which is also one of the reasons of the reduction of the abundance of prepupae, but we didn’t research them.
The consequences of larvae eating needles that were one or more years old was reflected in the defoliation of the crowns.
The average defoliation of the crowns of conifer trees on the research plots was 28% in 2009 and 32% in 2010, the health status of the evaluated trees according to the defoliation declined.. If we compare the average defoliation of conifers located on the research plots with the average defoliation of conifers found throughout the Republic of Slovenia in 2009, we can see that, at 26%, the average defoliation throughout Slovenia was 2% lower, while the average defoliation of conifer trees throughout members of the EU was 19, 9% (Fischer et al. 2010). Weakened trees are more susceptible to damage from other biotic and abiotic factors, in a case from Carpathians, where the outbreak took 10 years, the resistance of the trees fell significantly. These trees died due to infections with species of fungi from the genus Armillaria and because of the colonisation of weakened trees with bark beetles; increased numbers of events like this can be expected in Slovenia in the coming years.
All attacks in Europe have occurred in stands of Norway spruce, on sites where higher proportions of Norway spruce are naturally not present, especially in non-native stands. Because of the higher incidence of non-native pure stands of Norway spruce in Slovenia and the growing impact of changing climatic factors, such as reduced rainfall and increasing of temperatures, especially during oviposition, we can expect more frequent increases in the species of the genus Cephalcia in Slovenian forests.
We are very grateful to Prof. Andrea Battisti, Ph.D. (Universita di Padova
DAFNAE-Entomologia, Italia) for reviewing Cephalcia identifications presented in this article. We also thank Gorazd Mlinšek (Forestry Service of Slovenia, KE Slovenj Gradec) for his help and assistance with the fieldwork. For financial support we are grateful to Pahernik foundation and Programme group P4-0059 Forest, forestry and renewable forest resources (1.1. 1999-31.12.2014).
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