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|ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2014 str. 41 <-- 41 --> PDF|
MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SEED CHARACTERISTICS OF TAURUS FIR (Abies cilicica /Ant. et Kotschy/Carriére) IN TURKEY
MORFOLOŠKA I FIZIOLOŠKA SVOJSTVA SJEMENA CILICIJSKE JELE (Abies cilicica /Ant. et Kotschy/Carriére) U TURSKOJ
Mustafa Yilmaz, Tefide Yüksel
Taurus fir (Abies cilicica /Ant. et Kotschy/ Carriére) is a tree species mostly found in the Taurus mountains in Turkey. The objective of this study was to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of the seed of the Taurus fir. The seeds were collected from five different provenances of natural distribution, including Göksun, Saimbeyli, Kozan, Anamur, and Bucak. In the laboratory, for each of the different provenances, we measured the1000-seed weight; the length, width, and thickness of the seeds; and the weights of the individual seeds. The morphological characteristics of the seeds varied according to their provenances. To determine the necessary duration of pre-chilling, we attempted to germinate the seeds from each of the five different provenances, after pre-chilling at 4 °C for 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We determined that the optimum pre-chilling duration was six weeks. In order to determine the optimum germination temperature, the seeds from three provenances were subjected to a germination test at each of four different temperatures (12, 16, 20, and 24 °C) after three different pre-chilling durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks). This resulted in various germination rates and speeds. The seeds germinated best at 20 °C and 24 °C.
Keywords: Abies cilicica, seed, dormancy, pre-chilling, germination
The Taurus Fir (Abies cilicica /Ant. et Kotschy/ Carriére), a shade-tolerant tree growing to 35 m, is found only in Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon. Their distribution is limited in Lebanon and Syria, and the largest concentration is in southern Turkey, primarily in the deep valleys and north-facing slopes of the Taurus Mountains, at elevation from 1150 m to 2000 m (Bozkuş 1988). The wood of A. cilicica has been utilized for many different purposes, including furniture, paneling, boxes, packaging, boards, and toys. The ecological amplitude of this species is comparatively limited (M’Hirit 1999). A. cilicica is represented by two subspecies (Davis 1965-1985; Yaltırık 1993): (1) A. cilicica subsp. cilicica occurs in the eastern part of its range, and it is identified by its buds, which have no resin, and by the hairy shoots it forms when young; (2) A. cilicica subsp. isaurica Coode et Cullen has glabrous shoots when young and resinous buds, and is distributed in the West Taurus (Browicz 1982).
There are about 40 species of fir, and they are generally sensitive to environmental effects (Yaltırık 1993; Edwards 2008). In recent decades, a decline in the number of fir