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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/2015 str. 56     <-- 56 -->        PDF

be associated with more difficult climatic conditions (thermo-pluviometric factor – TPF and De Martonne indices). The observed value of TPFV-IX = 21.7, is comparable to the minimum threshold values of 19 and 24 mentioned by Schmidt-Vogt (1977) for Norway spruce in warm/wet and cold/wet climate, respectively.
The average height of the 4320 trees analysed in the four experiments, 30 years after planting, was 17.4 m, a value almost identical to that obtained in Germany (17.2 m) for trees of the same age (Mäkinen & Hein 2006), but 10% to 13% greater than that obtained in France (Loubère et al. 2004). The average height at the same age was around 30% lower in Poland (Matras 2009) and Finland (Mäkinen et al. 2003; Kilpeläinen et al. 2010), and 27% lower in Norway (Steffenrem et al. 2007).
In the two ONR trials (Avrig and Câmpina) RI value differed by 9%, most likely due to the limiting site conditions observed at the latter location. The average RI value observed in the present study was 16.5% greater than that recorded in Finland for 20-year old trees (Zubizarreta Gerendiain et al. 2009), and in Norway, in a full-sib test of 30-years old, (Steffenrem et al. 2007), the mean of radial growth was 23.8% lower than ONR in the present study. The existence of large variability, both within and among populations, favours transition to the next generations of selection (Klapste et al. 2007) with the inclusion in the selected process of the most valuable trees from the best populations.
However, the above discussed similarities or differences compared to those in other geographical areas cannot be attributed to genetic values of Norway spruce, because we don´t have evidences about environmental similarities or differences. Also, the testing performed in our study did not include populations from outside of Carpathians.
In terms of AV/T values, the IUFRO standard provenance, 5-Moldoviþa, performed much better ONR (ranking 5th) than in the INR trials (25th). Since it is located at the lower altitudinal limit of the natural range of Norway spruce (855 m), this suggests a high adaptability of this particular provenance in areas with longer growing season, at low altitude, in the high hills of Subcarpathian area (the TPFV-IX value must be greater than 25).
An important finding of this research, in the four trials, is related to decrease of LP outside the natural range, on overall and in all the Carpathians branches (Figure 4). On the other hand, the geographical coordinates of the seed sources origin have small influences (Table 5), but the population effect was significant (P<0.001; Table 3 and Table 4). In the present study, LP values increased with altitude from 20.3% at 570 m to 37.9% at 1100 m. As a result, the LP prediction