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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2015 str. 48     <-- 48 -->        PDF

Nature Conservation (NN 70/05, NN 80/13) the highest level of protection is given to the National Park (NP) Paklenica, Nature Park (NaP) Telašćica, the Nature Park (NaP) Vransko jezero and Nature Park Velebit (partially in the Zadar county). Research done among tourists in 2006 (Krpina 2009), showed that the motive for tourist arrival in the Zadar county is mainly to learn about nature (68%) and protected sites (53%), and the highest satisfaction with the touristic offer is with the beauty of nature and ecological preservation. Protected areas on one hand are public areas that should be accessible to everyone, but on the other hand because of their unique natural ecosystems have to be protected more active and managed by principles of sustainable development. Protected areas are part of the most attractive tourist destinations with a large potential for the development of a complex tourist offer. In the concept of tourism, protected areas present a specific touristic product which is a combination of various contents, including geomorphologic, climatic and landscape characteristics of the area, localities of special attractions or biological recourses, but also of transport means, types of accommodation, specific touristic infrastructure and specific activities (Martinić 2010). Appropriate management of these resources and their conservation can be based only on exact and timely information, both on the status of the natural values of the park as well as on the number, activities, attitudes and characteristics of their visitors.
Such socio-ecological research is conducted continuously every five to ten years. The research work from 2006 (Krpina 2009) presents the introduction to this interdisciplinary research that combines natural science in nature conservation and social and economic science in the area of tourism.
A part of domestic authors work on the touristic valorisation of the NP Paklenica, Lukić (1995) elaborates on the possibility of natural beauty, Radović (1995) comments a number of possibilities of assessment in nature conservation and Salleto-Janković (1995) in his research on the touristic valorisation of the relief of the NP Paklenica raises the question of maximum conservation of the natural environment and its optimal use.
In the Paklenica proceedings, vol. 2 (2004) published on the occasion of the 55th anniversary of the Paklenica National Park, Jović presents a research work on the model of visiting and visitors in the NP Paklenica. Lukač and Hršak, (2005) investigate the impact of visitors on the distribution of birds in the NP Paklenica. Lukač and colleagues (2007) give an overview on biodiversity, visiting and recreation as well as special protected zones within the Paklenica NP. Klarić et all. (2006) produces a local master plan of tourism for the NaP Vransko jezero and its surrounding by assessing the demand for a park on the basis of interest and activities of visitors. In the summer 2010 the NGO „Sunce” (Split) conducted a project on the research of visitors in the NaP Telašćica. The project was part of the regional MedPan South project, coordinated by the Mediterranean office of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF MedPO). The first systematic monitoring of visitor characteristics in Croatian national and nature parks was conducted in 2004 (Agriconsulting S. p. A., 2005), as part of the Karst Ecosystem Conservation Project (KEC). Parts of this project included visitor research in the NP Paklenica and NaP Velebit. Marušić et all. (2007) conducts the research (also in Paklenica NP) „Attitudes and spending patterns of visitors in National and Nature Parks in Croatia”, shortened Tomas 2006 National and Nature parks, with the aim of marketing natural protected areas and the design of tourist products.
The inclusion of this three parks assured also the representativeness of all three main natural phenomena: mountain landscape (NP Paklenica), island (NaP Telašćica) and wetland landscape (NaP Vransko jezero). The word ‘park’ in the following text refers to the national park and nature parks included in this research.
Purpose of research
Cilj istraživanja
The purpose of this research is to gather insight in the various components of the model people – ecosystem (Human ecosystem model) on the specific example of protected areas. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods of research has been applied as well as an appropriate data processing and analysis.
As the Human ecosystem model is very complicated, for the purpose of this research only certain elements of this model where used, especially the orientation of values of the users (based on the Value orientation theory) and decision makers and their interaction and patterns of behaviour based on the Planned Behaviour theory (Ajzen 1991) which can be mutually interpreted and linked.
Research area – Područje istraživanja
Tourist destinations with their natural, historical, cultural and other contents and selective offers, can extend the tourism season on the whole year, which is from an economic and social aspect most important for the destination. This is not easy to achieve, as according to Tadej (1992) a good concept of alternative tourism because of the large amount of specific requests is much more complicated than to develop a well designed concept of mass tourism.
This research was conducted in the following areas: NP Paklenica (in the forest hut, the mountain refugee, at the exit of the park), NaP Telašćica (on an excursion boat of the NaP, in the Mir bay and in a restaurant in the park) and in the NaP Vransko jezero (at the entrance of the campsite Crkvine, on the viewpoint Kamenjak and in the port Prosika).