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species. Although these researches conducted, auxin application-related researches are needed to grow more quality and productive plants (Chhun et al., 2003).
Rooting of cutting varies from species to species. Various pre-treatments are carried out in order to facilitate the rooting of cutting and increase success. Hormone applications are one of the most common pre-treatments. Research evidence suggests that auxins play a central role in the determination of rooting capacity, by enabling the faster production of rooted cutting material which is essential for vegetative propagation (Fogaça and Fett-Neto, 2005). Auxins are known to increase rooting percentage and rooting time together with uniformity of rooting (Hartmann et al., 2002).
In these applications, the cross section of a plant is exposed to the rooting hormones prepared in high concentrations for a short time. Then cuttings are taken to such rooting media as peat, sand, and pearlite, and root formation is waited. The cuttings taken to rooting media cover extensive areas. So, the rooting media cannot be used for other purposes until this application, which is usually carried out in greenhouses, ends.
The rooting period of plants following the hormone application varies from species to species. It may take from a couple of weeks to twelve weeks or longer (Zencirkıran, 2013). The plant’s root development cannot be monitored visually in this period. Rooting percentages may be too low after the applications that take many months. That causes big losses of labor and very high costs.
This study aims to conduct production through cuttings by use of a different method. To this end, contrary to classic applications, cuttings were not exposed to short-time high hormone doses, but they were kept in low-concentration hormones permanently. To compare the research results with the results of conventional applications, common rooting methods were also employed.
Materials and Methods
Materijali i metode
In this study, species Ficus benjamina L. cuttings, which were in a height of 8 to 10 cm and prepared from last-year shoots, were used. In the cutting preparation, to keep two buds on each cutting was ensured. The cuttings were kept in pure water to dry and were used in rooting trials in less than 24 hours.
Two different rooting methods were tried in this study. In the first one, the concentrations of IAA, IBA, GA3, and NAA hormones were prepared in doses of 100, 50 and 10 ppm. Cardboard cups having a volume of nearly 150 mm were filled with these hormones up to half. Then 20 of prepared cuttings were put in each of these media. After putting the cuttings, the hormone level in the cup was marked. In case of any decrease of hormone level in the cup as to daily check, such cups were completed with pure water. By this means, it was tried to prevent any change in hormone concentration that might occur as a result of surface evaporation. The concentrations of IAA, IBA, GA3, and NAA hormones prepared in the doses of 100, 50 and 10 ppm were kept in a +4 °C refrigerator in the study period. The cups and the hormones inside them were changed once every five days. In this stage of the study, 12 applications were carried out (3 doses from each hormone). Also, a control group was used. The rooting of cuttings in pure water was monitored in the control group.
Rooting trials were conducted also in solid rooting media in order to compare the results of the applications focused on in the study with those of classic applications. 1000, 3000 and 5000 ppm concentrations of IAA, IBA, GA3, and NAA hormones were tried. The cross sections of the prepared cuttings were made to contact with these hormones for 4 to 5 seconds, and the cuttings were planted in rooting media. Sand, peat, and perlite were used as rooting media. The rooting media were irrigated once every three days, thereby keeping the media humid continuously. In this way, the cuttings exposed to 13 applications (3 doses from each one of 4 hormones and one control group application) were taken to 3 different rooting media. Thus, 39 different application results were compared.
The cuttings subjected to 13 different applications in liquid rooting media and 39 different applications in solid rooting media were kept in rooting media for 45 days. At the end of this period, measurements were carried out on cuttings to determine rooting percentage (%) (RP), the number of roots (RN), the biggest root length value (mm) (RB), the average root length value (mm) (RA) and the average root thickness value (mm) (RT).
All data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Firstly, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the data. Then Duncan’s test was set at the 0.05 confidence level to separate treatment means.
Different doses of hormones may have different effects on traits. Thus, more reliable results may be obtained if evaluation is made by regarding each dose of each hormone as a separate treatment, that is, a separate treatment. The applications were effective in terms of all the characters (P<0.05). There was no rooting in 10 ppm doses of IAA and IBA, and there was rooting only in 100 ppm of GA3 and in 10 ppm of NAA. The highest rooting percentage was in 10 ppm of NAA (94.43%) and in 100 ppm of IBA (93.9%). These