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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/2016 str. 45     <-- 45 -->        PDF

et al. (1996) examined the effects of different stratification periods, IBA concentrations, and rooting media on the rooting of Ficus carica cuttings and determined that the best root and shoot development was obtained in the cuttings subjected to a dose of 100 ppm of the IBA hormone and planted in sand: soil mixture in the ratio of 1:1 without any stratification. A study was conducted on the propagation of Ficus carica via green cutting. Green cuttings with 2 to 3 leaves exposed to a dose of 1000 to 4000 ppm of the IBA hormone were planted in stream sand, and a rooting of 85% to 100% was obtained (Kai et al., 1997). In addition, some studies on the propagation of Ficus carica via tissue culture conducted in recent years have yielded favorable results (Demiralay et al., 1998; Günver and Ertan; 1998; Kumar et al., 1998; Nobre and Romano, 1998). However, all of these studies have required more time, labor, materials, and hormones in comparison to the method employed in the present study and do not have success rates higher than the one obtained in the present study.
Many studies have focused on the effects of auxin group hormones on rooting and plant development. Alvarez et al. (1989) examined the effects of IAA and IBA in Malus pumila; Şevik and Güney (2013a, 2013b) examined the effects of IAA, IBA, NAA and GA3 in Melissa officinalis; Stefancic et al. (2005) examined the effects of IAA and IBA in Prunus spp., and Chhun et al. (2003) examined the effects of IAA, IBA, and NAA in Oryza sativa. The previous studies mostly show that auxin group hormones are influential on rooting. That is consistent with the results of the present study.
Gibberellins are the third most commonly used plant hormones with a share of 17%. The most commonly used commercial gibberellin is GA3. It is mostly used for increasing the height of a plant or flower yield (Kumlay and Eryiğit, 2011). The present study demonstrated that rooting percentage, root height, and root thickness values were 1.5 to 9.9 times higher among cuttings exposed to a dose of 100 ppm of the GA3 hormone in comparison to the control group (Table 1). That is consistent with the results provided in the literature, too (Sevik and Guney, 2013a, 2013b).
Liquid rooting media provide bigger advantages in comparison to the conventional applications. They allow monitoring the course of rooting of plants and prevent occupying solid rooting media in vain because plants whose roots have grown enough are taken to solid rooting media. Liquid rooting media also allow producing many plants in a limited rooting area. For example, in the present study, cuttings were placed in solid rooting media at the intervals of 2 cm, and an area of approximately 400 cm2 was used for 100 cuttings. On the other hand, 20 cuttings were placed in each cardboard cup which had a diameter of almost 6.5 cm in liquid rooting media. An area of nearly 43 cm2 was used for 100 cuttings. Accordingly, liquid rooting media allow the rooting of the same amount of cuttings as solid rooting media in an area of almost 1/10 of the area used by solid rooting media. Another advantage of the employed method is fewness of the number of materials used. While classic methods require flowerpots and rooting platforms covering wide areas as well as such materials as sand, pearlite, or peat as a rooting medium, the method employed in the present study uses only cardboard cups and pure water and requires smaller amount of hormones. Since the individuals whose root formation has reached the adequate level in liquid rooting media are placed in flowerpots, success rate is close to 100%. Therefore, this method, which is easier and cheaper, can be effectively used in the fields where many individuals such as medical plants, aromatic plants, ornamental plants, and field crops need to be rooted. However, further studies should be carried out to determine the hormone and the concentration that yield the best result for each plant.