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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2016 str. 52     <-- 52 -->        PDF

reactions caused by synthetic medicines and pollution caused by pharmaceutical industry have made herbal treatment important today (Bulut, 2006). Plants used as herbal drugs in treatment in traditional and modern medicine are called „Medicinal Plants” (Baydar, 2007). Turkey has a high number of medicinal and aromatic plants due to its rich flora. Plants have been used by local people for treatment purposes, as food, tea, spices, dye, insecticide, for treatment of animal diseases, as resin, glue and as volatile fixed oils, beverage and for cosmetics industry as a part of our long traditional cultural diversity (Faydaoğlu and Sürücüoğlu, 2011).
Pharmacologic studies carried out on these medicines based on their purpose of use have scientifically explained some biological effects (Baydar, 2007). Plants are characteristically composed of mostly high-molecular-weight substances such as carbohydrates, oil, protein, cellulose, lignin and pectin, which are called primary metabolites. Apart from primary metabolites which have functions that are essential to growth and development plants also contain small moleculare weight secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, volatile oils, glycosides, heterocyst, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, color substances and resins, which are sometimes at unmeasurable levels and are not essential in terms of the vitality of plants. Therapeutic activity of a medicinal plant arises from these bioactive substances. Plants which are rich in terms of secondary metabolites mostly fall into the group of medical and aromatic plants (Baydar, 2007).
Certain parts (leaf, flower, sprout, fruit, root) of hawthorn (Crataegus) species, which are one of the widely used plants among the public, are traditionally used to treat various diseases. Dried flower and fruits of hawthorn are prepared as tea and used to treat tonsillitis, coughing, poor coronary activity, cardiac pain, tachycardia, renal diseases, arteriosclerosis, liver pain and hemorrhoids (Baytop, 1984; Karadeniz, 2004; Meriçli, 1994). Hawthorn, which has been used as traditional medicine, has drew attention from the world of science and various studies have been carried out. Previous studies reported that different taxa of hawthorn have antiarrhythmic effect (Garjani et al., 2000); hypotensive effect and increase coronary blood flow (Birman et al., 2001), they have anti-ischemic (Al Makdessi et al., 1999) anti-inflammatory (Bor et al., 2012), antioxidant effect (Bahorun et al., 1994; Bahorun et al., 1996; Bor et al., 2012) they protect vascular integrity (Miller, 1998), have antiviral (Shahat