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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2016 str. 56     <-- 56 -->        PDF

to determine seed fatty acid amount and composition by injecting the samples to the device. Hexane was used to obtain fixed oil by cold extraction (Nimal Ratnayake et. al., 2006). After 24 hours, pure oil was separated from hexane using rotary evaporator and fixed oil was extracted. Pure cellulose from the extracted fixed oil was exposed to cold extraction in hexane by mixing approximately 15 g sample placed in cartridge at certain intervals for 24 hours. Then, hexane was removed from rotary evaporator, thus leaving oil extracts. 100 µL of the extract was kept in derivatizing agent containing 0.5% sodium methoxide (80:20 (methanol: isooctane) at room temperature for 24 hours (25c). 1 mL isooctane was added and mixed at vortex device (AOCS, 2005). The supernatant was let to separate. 1 µL of supernatant was injected to GC- FID. Chromatogram evaluation was determined according to supelco 37-fame mixture (fatty acid mixture) standard retention time.
Volatile components and contents of C. pentagyna Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. subsp. pentagyna, C. orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. subsp. orientalis, C. orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. subsp. szovitsii (Pojark.) K.I.Chr, Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.)Pers., Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia, Crataegus monogyna Jacq. var. lasiocarpa (Lange) K.I.Christ, Crataegus monogyna Jacq. var. monogyna taxa
that are naturally distributed in Western Anatolia were determined by SPME (Solid-Phase Microextraction method). Results of volatile components are presented in Table 2
Seed fatty acid components of hawthorn taxa were determined in GC-FID analyses. The results for these samples are presented in Table 3.
A total of 81 components were determined in volatile oils of leaves and flowers of 7 Crataegus taxa collected from different localities. Major components are Benzaldehyde, butyraldehyde, 2-hexenal (82.54%, 38.27% and 21.67% respectively). The high content of Benzaldehyde, butyraldehyde, 2-hexenal and hexanol were determined in volatile oils of C. orientalis subsp. orientalis samples collected from different localities.
Kovaleva et al., (2009) analyzed chemical composition of volatile oils extracted from the flowers of C. jackii, C. robesonianave C. flabellata. Researchers determined main components of C. robesoniana as phthalate (15.62%), squalene (13.08%), tricosane (11.11%), main components of C. flabellata as tricosane (19.21%), heneicosane (12.59%), nonacosane (11.22%) and main volatile components of C. jackii as tricosane (17.88%), and phthalate (13.38%) heneicosene-1 (12.53%). This indicates that different components can be determined in different taxa.
Fruit seed samples of 7 Crataegus taxa were analyzed and 10 fatty acid components belonging to each taxon were determined. Linoleic (18.2%), oleic (18.1%) and palmitic (16.0%) acid components were the main acids present. Linoleic acid, which was found at the highest ratio (64.23%) was determined from C. pentagyna subsp. pentagyna sample collected from Taşköprü locality.
Barros et al., (2010) analyzed fatty acid composition of flower and fruits of C. monogyna Jacq. and determined the highest content of linoleic acid in unripe fruits (58.5%); ripe fruits (17.53%), flower buds (15.64%), flowers (14.17%) over ripened fruits (13.12%). The researchers reported that the fatty acid component with the second highest content was tricosanoic acid, which was determined in flower buds (36.95%), flowers (33.67%), unripe fruits (8.18%), ripened fruits (32.77%) and over unripened fruits (30.40%). γ linoiec acid was reported to be the 3rd fatty acid with the highest content, which was determined in flower buds (26.79%), flowers (29.51%), unripe fruits (5.98%), ripened fruits (7.41%), and over ripened fruits (15.65%). The high content of palmitic acid respectively in over ripened fruits (15.52%), ripened fruits (13.73%), flowers (11.23%), flower buds (11.02%), and unripe fruits (10.61%).
Hawthorn fruits have a wide field of use in its distribution areas and thus around the world. Hawthorn, which has a significant role in food industry, is directly consumed as fruit. Furthermore, due to chemicals such as fatty acid, sterols etc. in its fruit, a review of the literature has shown that hawthorn has antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects (Bahorun et al.,1994; Shahat et al., 1998; Orhan et al., 2007; Ahumada et al., 1997). This study directly concentrated on seeds of hawthorn, which is consumed as food, after removal of flesh section. Thus, fatty acid compositions of fruit seeds, which are considered as waste after consumption of fruits, were identified and amounts of fatty acids were determined in terms of chemical use. The fatty acid with the highest procentage in all samples was found to be linoleic acid. Furthermore, other fatty acids were determined at significant amounts.
We express our sincere appreciation to Suleyman Demirel University, Coordinatorship of Scientific Research Projects for their financial support by project which numbered as 3211-D2-12.