prilagođeno pretraživanje po punom tekstu

ŠUMARSKI LIST 9-10/2016 str. 68     <-- 68 -->        PDF

the last decade (Francis, 2003; Carmona et al., 2003; Ter, 2011 and others) the term „park quality“ stands out in the context of the relationship between the man and space.
Based on the concept of park design that was applied by the end of the 20th century, parks are designed to provide active and passive use through various forms of leisure activities (walking, sitting, running, children playing, volleyball, etc.) but nowadays they do not meet all the requirements of contemporary users, thus requiring a more modern, or postmodern observation context. In fact, the current process of landscape design lacks an important prerequisite for the design of high-quality parks – respecting all needs and expectations of their users (Goličnik & Thompson, 2010). The need for different types of gatherings, communication and socializing with people represents increasingly pronounced motivation for visiting parks and other urban areas for the purposes of recreation (Živković, 2015). Social-based recreation refers to a form of recreation through activities that bring people together (Živković, 2015). It is also linked to the concept of human presence and interaction in public places. Recreational activities provide opportunities for establishing new contacts and generate forms of socializing and behavior which are often characterized by spontaneity and openness, which, in the domain of leisure time, contribute to the quality of life of modern man (Živković, 2015). Authors such as Kent & Madden (1998) emphasize the importance of social activities for the success of urban parks by stating: „If urban parks can evolve from their primary recreational roles into the new role of a catalyst for the development of the society, parks will be a necessary component in transforming and enhancing the quality of life within the city.“
The interdisciplinary and applied meaning of the research involving the use of open spaces is created by the inclusion of landscape designers and other professionals. According to Gropius (1961) a good design is both a scientific and artistic discipline since the scientific level analyzes human psyche and human interrelations while the artistic level deals with the coordination of human activities into a cultural synthesis. The observations and writings of social scientists, urban designers and landscape architects such as White (1980), Gehl (1987), Cooper Marcus & Francis (1990), Francis (2003) and others have shown definitively that use is requirement for good public landscapes.
In the context of the relationship between the man and space the most common objects of sociological research (Park et al., 1967; Harvey, 1990; Lefebvre, 1991) are: the impact of the environment on man; the effects of human activities on the environment; different needs of people whose fulfillment requires physical environment; awareness of the environment in terms of understanding the environment and the perception of space. The results of the study, based on the analysis of these relationships, confirm that the reactions of people to their environment differ between the groups of people with different cultural, social and physical characteristics (Priego et al., 2008). The parallel consideration of open spaces, space users and the relationship between the man and space serves to determine the set of characteristics of space and the behaviour of people who, as a special concept of empirically established data can be integrated into the process of landscape design. The quality of an urban area is the intensity with which open areas are used for the purposes of different activities and it is referred to as the utilization potential of an area (Bazik, 1995).
According to the nonprofit planning, design and educational organization Project for Public Space (PPS, 2005) the following criteria for assessing the quality of parks stand out: space accessibility; suitability for different types of activities (diversity of facilities and equipment); amenity (depending on microclimatic conditions, space safety, etc.) and sociability (the possibility of engaging in social activities). Most researchers (Cooper Marcus & Francis, 1990; Francis, 2003; Ter, 2011 i dr.) agree with the above criteria.
This study aims to determine the importance of the quality criteria which are effective in assessing urban parks as places for successful designs. The utilization potential of a park is evaluated by using the quality criteria in the case of the city park Tašmajdan in Belgrade.
Data for the analysis of the users’ views concerning accessibility, diversity of facilities and equipment in the area were collected in Tašmajdan Park which is located in central Belgrade (General Plan of Belgrade 2021.), on the territory of the municipality of Palilula (Figure 1). The area where Tašmajdan Park is situated today used to be a „maydan” or quarry from which stone was collected for laying the first foundations of the city. It was also the locus of the tumultuous events that marked the long history of Belgrade (Milanović, 2006). In the period between 1826 and 1886 the site of the present-day park served as a cemetary. After the relocation of the cemetery, there was a tendency to reorganize the space, but the construction of the city park did not begin until 1950 and it ended in 1954 (Milanović, 2006). „The main project for the investment maintenance of Tašmajdan Park“ based on the conceptual framework of the Azerbaijani architect Eldar Guseynov was set up in 2010 while the last reconstruction of Tašmajdan Park was done in 2011.
Tašmajdan Park has a location related advantage since it is situated near the oldest city center and within the entity of „Old Belgrade“, which has the status of a protected natural environment of immovable property (Milanović, 2006). In