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ŠUMARSKI LIST 9-10/2016 str. 78     <-- 78 -->        PDF

Forest areas in Turkey are managed by the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. Forests are discussed under two headings as protected areas and production and conservation forests. National parks, nature reserve areas, and the areas protected as Nature Parks are managed with long term development plans and administration plans by Nature Conversion and National Parks General Directorate; and production and conservation forests are managed with forest management plans by the General Directorate of Forestry. The smallest administrative units are forest administration chief offices/forest planning units and they are managed by forest management plans in accordance with Ecosystem-based Multiple Use Forest Management principles. The preparation process of forest management plans consist of a) the inventory of forest ecosystems, b) the installation of geographical database by using geographical information systems technology (GIS), c) the preparation of digital baseline maps such as stand type map, forest functions maps, d) the identification of management objectives and conservation targets with the participatory approach, e) the arrangement of utilization (the determination of how much allowable cut will be taken from which part in the forest, when and with which silvicultural treatments), f) the presentation in plan format; the preparation of cutting map that is the final output and the arrangement of the relevant tables (GDF, 2014b; Asan, 1999; Yolasığmaz, 2013; Başkent et al, 2008a, 2008b; Başkent et al, 2005).
In the last five-year period, the preparation of silviculture plans that are the application step of forest management plans has been included in the planning process as a legal obligation. However, a definite standard could not be formed in the preparation and application process of the silviculture plans. In forest management plan, there are two different tables related to regeneration, reforestation and tending fields, the shape of silvicultural treatments, determined functional/decided allowable cut and their locations are stated. Silvicultural treatment times applied to these areas cover ten or twenty-year periods due to the implementation time of the plan. However, it is not clearly stated that where it is going to be treated year to year, and which regeneration and tending techniques will be applied (GDF, 2014b; 2014c).
Silviculture plans are prepared with a series of studies performed in the land and offices. Silviculture plans are prepared by forest administration chief officer (forest engineer) who will apply forest treatment plan and with the technical support of other administrators; and the monitoring and controls are made by classical methods. According to the notification related to the preparation of silviculture plans, three additional tables are arranged. In the first one of these tables, the field studies to be made in the preparation of silviculture plans are given, the treatment techniques to be implemented in regeneration and tending fields are given in the second one; and the years of treatments and information about allowable cuts to be taken are given in the third one (GDF, 2014c).
Spatial databases prepared by using GIS have been designed to prepare forest management plans and maps, and it is not for preparing silviculture plans and maps. It is not convenient for following the structural changes in the forest, monitoring and control the silvicultural treatments (Yolasığmaz and Keleş, 2009). For this reason, geographical database has been redesigned to prepare silviculture plan and treatment in the research.
Basic Concepts
Osnovni pojmovi
To comprehend the matter better, the forestry philosophy in Turkey, the planning approach, and the basic concepts must be explained briefly. While forest management plans are being prepared, the sampling plots that are 300 meters to 300 meters are distributed systematically and randomly to the planning unit. Main objective of the sampling is to prepare the stand map that is the baseline map. There are compartments and sub-compartments on this map. The compartments are the fields, the borders which do not change and are divided by the natural lines and artificial lines such as streams, roads etc. The sub-compartments are the parts remained within the division of the stands. The stand is a patch of forest that is separated from the forest areas just besides it with some features such as tree species, mixtures, crown closers and development stages that are bigger than one hectare. The main objective in forest inventory is to decide on the stand symbols and to identify the borders and stand parameters. There are some information such as the tree species, mixtures, stand development stage and crown cover in stand symbol. Tree species are described with symbols. Of the species included in the research area, it is described like this; Çs; Pinus sylvesteris, M; Quercus spp, Kv; Populus ssp., Ar; Juniperus spp. In the determination of the mixture of tree species, tree numbers in the stands and stand volume are considered together and the species exceeding 10% of the stand is included in the stand symbol. The species having the most tree numbers proportionally or volume is written on the front in the symbol. The stand development stages[5] are expressed as a, b, c, d, e text characters and are named according to the measurement values in dbh (diameter based height). The term „crown closer[6]/forest canopy” is defined as the sheltering