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|ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2016 str. 47 <-- 47 --> PDF|
POTENTIALLY IMPORTANT INSECT PESTS OF Celtis australis IN SLOVENIA, CROATIA AND HUNGARY
POTENCIJALNO ZNAČAJNI ŠTETNI KUKCI NA Celtis australis U SLOVENIJI, HRVATSKOJ I MAĐARSKOJ
Maja JURC, György CSÓKA, Boris HRAŠOVEC
We have collected published data and carried out pilot studies on European nettle tree (Celtis australis) entomofauna in Croatia, Slovenia and Hungary. Seven taxa of Lepidoptera (Libythea celtis, Nymphalis polychloros, Archips xylosteana, Erannis defoliaria, Caloptilia fidella, Phyllonoricter millierella and Hyphantria cunea), one cerambycid (Neoclytus acuminatus) and one hemipteran (Metcalfa pruinosa) were found. Two species of Lepidoptera (L. celtis and P. millierella) are monophagous on the leaves of C. australis. The other recorded species are also known on other woody hosts. For N. polychloros, A. xylosteana, E. defoliaria, C. fidella and N. acuminatus European nettle tree is a new host plant. The monophagous species of butterflies on C. australis have appeared more frequently in the last decade. The results are intended to predict whether this tree species is suitable for introduction on a wider scale in pine plantations of Pinus nigra affected by climatic extremes, pests and diseases, such as sphaeropsis blight (Diplodia pinea). Taking into the account the potential rise and growing impact of European nettle defoliators, which, according to some projections will prosper in the future due to global warming, some reservations arise and reduction of C. australis viability are to be expected.
KEY WORDS: Celtis australis, Southern/Central Europe, insects, defoliators, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera
European nettle tree (Celtis australis L., Urticales, Ulmaceae) is a deciduous tree native to the Mediterranean region (Southern Europe, North Africa), and it also appears in Asia Minor, the Crimea and in the area from the Caucasus to Iran (Potočić et al. 1983). The northern boundary of its area is Switzerland, where it appears from 800 to 900 meters above sea level (Jovanović 1971). On warm South Tyrolean slopes it can even be found up to 1,150 m above sea level (Brus 2005). C. australis is a popular ornamental tree in the cities of the Sub-Mediterranean area.
C. australis is resistant to drought, wind and air pollution in cities and is able to withstand temperatures as low as –15 °C (Potočić et al. 1983). It prefers light, sandy soil and warm, dry limestone terrain. C. australis is a light-loving species. Hence, it is suitable for the afforestation of karstic and dry terrain (Jovanović 1971, Matić et al. 2011).
In Slovenia its habitats are sunny, rocky slopes in the Pre-Alpine (probably introduced) and Sub-Mediterranean