DIGITALNA ARHIVA ŠUMARSKOG LISTA
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|ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2016 str. 49 <-- 49 --> PDF|
We gathered accessible publications of pests on C. australis in Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary (Karsholt and Razowski 1996; Maceljski et al. 1995; Maček 1999; Harapin and Jurc 2000; Sama 2002; Beccaloni et al. 2003; Hrašovec 2009; Polak 2009; Matošević et al. 2009; Lesar and Govedič 2010; Verovnik et al. 2012; Torkar et al. 2013; Jurc 2013; Jurc 2014; Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa, www.leps.it; European Butterflies and Moths, http://lepidoptera.eu/; Fauna Europaea, http://www.faunaeur.org/; Prirodoslovni muzej Slovenije-Natural History Museum of Slovenia, http://www1.pms-lj.si/animalia/galerija.php; Neoclytus acuminatus, M. Hoskovec, http://www.cerambyx.uochb.cz/neoclyt.htm).
For Slovenia, the first report of a potentially serious defoliator on C. australis describes the leaf miner Phyllonoricter millierella (Staudinger, 1877) in the localities of Portorož (1971) and Ljubljana (1975) (Maček 1999) (Figure 2).
On 8.9.2011 mines on the leaves of young European nettle trees were noticed in the location Dekani (Jurc 2013), and on 03.12.2013 injuries from P. millierella were found on adult trees in Piran and in the Rastelli Art Nouveau park in Portorož (Jurc 2014). Injuries at the Dekani location were individual, but in Piran the mass occurrence of mines on leaves was recorded (Figure 3).
In Croatia P. millierella was observed in 2005 on the island of Krk (location Šilo) (Matošević et al. 2009). Another piece of information on C. australis pests in Croatia relates to the sampling and data collection of M. Hoskovec (http://www.cerambyx.uochb.cz/neoclyt.htm). In August 2006 Hoskovec collected a dead piece of C. australis wood with cerambycid larvae and after rearing identified them as Neoclytus acuminatus (Fabricius, 1775). In 2008 a heavy attack and total die-back of C. australis trees in street plantings in Novi Vinodolski (Croatia) were caused by the same cerambycid (Hrašovec 2009).
The outcome of the laboratory experiment of rearing field sampled larvae from European nettle trees taken in Brseč on May 5, 2014, was 40 dead caterpillars, 48 dead undeveloped pupae, 90 left pupae exuviae (87 Libythea celtis and 3 Archips xylosteana) and 90 developed adult Lepidoptera (85 Libythea celtis, 3 Archips xylosteana, 2 Nymphalis polychloros).
In the following text a brief overview of our results of the herbivorous entomofauna on C. australis is given with the data from the countries in which they occur:
– Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Libythea celtis (Laicharting, 1782) (present in SI*, CRO*, H*), Nymphalis polychloros (Linnaeus, 1758) (present in SI**, CRO*, H**); Tortricidae: Archips xylosteana (Linnaeus, 1758) (present in SI**, CRO*, H**); Geometridae: Erannis defoliaria (Clerck, 1759) (present in SI**, CRO*, H**); Gracillariidae: Caloptilia fidella (Reutti, 1853) (present in SI**, CRO**, H*), Phyllonoricter millierella (Staudinger, 1877) (SI*, CRO*); Arctiidae: Hyphantria cunea (Drury, 1773) (present in SI**, CRO**, H*);
– Coleoptera: Neoclytus acuminatus (Fabricius, 1775) (present in SI**, CRO*, H**);
– Hemiptera: Flatidae: Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (present in SI**, CRO*, H**).
* found on C. australis in nature
** the literature data on the presence of the species in the country
Below we describe in more detail the herbivorous insects of C. australis which are likely to seriously damage this tree species (Csóka 1997; Hrašovec 2009; Jurc 2014).
Phyllonoricter millierella (Staudinger, 1877), Gracillariidae, nettle-tree leaf miner
During regular surveys of the condition of tree species’ health in Slovenia, we did not observe any signs of diseases or pests on C. australis until 2011. In August 2011, in a stand of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Miller) in Dekani near Koper, we observed mines on the leaves of C. australis (Figure 2). The agent of the damage was determined to be Phyllonoricter millierella (Staudinger, 1877), Gracillariidae (Jurc 2013).
The species is present in Switzerland, Italy, France, Greece, Croatia, Bulgaria, Russia, Slovenia (Karsholt and Razowski 1996; Fauna Europaea, http://www.faunaeur.org/; Maček 1999; Matošević et al. 2009; Lesar and Govedič 2010).