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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2016 str. 65     <-- 65 -->        PDF

706.1 m3 in one year. Thus, workers spent about 4 times more time on the logging of hardwoods, but on average the realized performance was smaller by nearly 30%.
There is a certain dependence between the percentage share of injured loggers in the total number of workers and an increase in the coefficient of norm enhancement in comparison to the prescribed work norm for the operating conditions in which the loggers worked (r-0.85, Sr-0.0086), where are r – correlation coefficient and Sr – standard error. This relationship can be represented by the function .
(Rp percentage share of injured loggers in the total number of loggers, k – coefficient of norm enhancement in comparison to the norms prescribed for the operating conditions).
The data used for calculating the dependence were taken as average annual values. Other factors were considered constant, i.e. their impact was not analyzed.
In spite of technological advances, forestry work continues to be one of the most dangerous activities, in particular when the workers do not have adequate training (Klun and Medved, 2007). In many states, certified or licensed logger programs only require approximately 4–8 hours of training in safe work practices (primarily chainsawing). Few, if any, of these programs have been rigorously evaluated in a quantitative manner to assess their ability to reduce injury (Bell and Grushecky, 2006). In general, even in other industries, there are relatively few examples of studies that have quantified injury reductions after training (Johnston, et al. 1994). Forest work is characterized by its seasonality, in the majority of companies most workers are not permanently employed. In Italy, 60% of forest firms are seasonal (Picchio et al., 2010). Because of poor management, workers’ low level of education, and lack of resources, safety is often neglected in many Chinese logging operations (Wang et al., 2003). However, a specific feature of this study is that all workers have undergone previous training composed of a theoretical and practical part. In addition, while in other studies a large number of workers were employed only seasonally, most workers engaged in forest utilization in this study are permanently employed. In spite of the training, the share of injured loggers in the total number of loggers is 25%. The largest number of injuries occurred in 2008, with a 77% share of loggers in the total number of injured workers.
Fortunately, there were no fatal injuries in the investigated period. The incidence of fatal work accidents is fluctuating (Suchomel et al., 2013). With an estimated lifetime fatality risk of 62.7 per 1,000 full-time workers, it is well documented that logging is one of the most hazardous occupations (Fosbroke, et al., 1997; Leigh, 1987; Marshall et al., 1994; Myers et al., 1994). Amongst the causes of fatal accidents are: falling trees, accidents with vehicles and accidents with work equipment (OSHA, 2008). Falling trees were associated with many fatal accidents as well as with accidents that resulted in severe non-fatal injuries (Lindroos and Burström, 2010). According to the official data (Šporčić and Sabo, 2002) in the 1994-1999 period an annual of 625 occupational injuries occurred in Croatian forests, while the number of fatal injuries ranged from 0 to 7. According to data from 2010 (Landekić) forestry (together with agriculture and fishery) with 7.95 occupational injuries in 1000 workers was among the least harmful occupations, as a significantly higher number of injuries was recorded in processing (18.47), and supply of electricity, gas and water (14.38) and construction (14.32).
However, the main causes of logger injuries that stand out are the blow of a branch (35%) and chainsaw chain (21%).
The average worker age in this study was 38.8, which is similar to the situation in Australia 39 years (Driscol et al., 1995) and Ireland 40 years (Nieuwenhuis and Lyons, 2002). The oldest age of workers was recorded in Sweden, where