prilagođeno pretraživanje po punom tekstu

ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2016 str. 66     <-- 66 -->        PDF

the average age of those killed in forestry labour accidents is 60 years (Lindroos and Burströmb, 2010), and the youngest age was recorded in China, where two thirds of those killed were under 25 (Wang et al., 2003).
Physical or dangerous jobs are less and less attractive for young Europeans (Blombäck et al., 2003). A significant correlation was found between the lack of worker experience and high accident rate (Wang et al., 2003; Bentley et al., 2002; Shaffer and Milburn, 1999; Lefort et al., 2003). Some authors find a coincidence in a higher rate for younger and older people (Wilhelmson et al., 2005; Neely and Wilhemson, 2006), while other studies did not detect significant differences (Salminen et al.,1999). The average length of service of the injured workers was 16 years, similar as Nieuwenhuis and Lyons (2002) found a low accident rate in Ireland due to the experience of workers, which was on average 11.5 years.
Low exposure times might statistically imply low accident probabilities, but have also been argued to increase accident rates per unit time worked due to a lack of practice in handling the seldom-encountered risks (Elvik, 2006; Fischer et al., 2005; Weegels and Kanis, 2000). Approximately 33% of the total nonfatal logging injuries and 29% of fatalities occurred to workers with less than 1 year of employment, while 48% of nonfatal and fatal injuries involved workers with less than 3 years of employment (Wang et al., 2003).
The workers with very little experience are less aware of the risks that they take, being more prone to injury (Tobisch et al., 2005) except slipping, tripping over and falls, which are more frequent among those of greater experience (Bentley et al., 2002). Not only accidents but also injuries to the lumbar region, shoulders and neck are related to a higher age group (Hagen et al., 1998).
Our study has shown that the most commonly injured body parts are the legs and arms (73%), while head injuries account for 18%. The likelihood of an employee suffering from an accident during the working year is correlated with the handling of chainsaws, the use of hookaroons, smoking, the number of breaks taken while working, experience, shoulder and knee height, leg and arm length and hand and foot width (Korhan et al., 2014).
In this study the largest number of injuries occurred in March and May, whereas a research from China in Jilin has shown that most injuries occurred from November to March (Wang, et al. 2003).
The largest number of injuries occurred in the period between 10 and 11 a.m. (26%). The research Wang et al. (2003) shows slightly different results, i.e. that the first peak occurred between 9:00 and 9:59 a.m. (15.1%) and the second peak between 3:00 and 3:59 p.m. (12.6% of the total number). All fatalities occurred within the time frame from 7:00 to 7:00 p.m. and followed the same pattern as nonfatal injuries with two peaks at 9:00–9:59 a.m. and 3:00–3:59 p.m.
This paper does not consider the number of sick leave days and direct worker insurance expenses. This is one of the most significant segments to be explored in the future period, because it is based on the assessment of data concerning some EU State Members. The total direct costs for insurance schemes covering accidents at work (viz. costs of medical care, daily allowances and present and future compensation for cases of permanent disability and death) have been estimated at 20 billion euros per year in the EU (EUROSTAT, 2002). It is divided up almost equally between the cost of the short-term effects of accidents (viz. medical expenses and daily allowances) and that of the long-term effects of more serious cases (viz. permanent disability and death) (Macedo and Silva, 2005). Andreoni (1986) presented quantitative evidence that prevention of occupational accidents, injuries and illnesses will reduce faults and stops of production cycles, and hence the overall production costs; his work was referred to in a program established by the European Agency for Health and Safety at Work.
In conclusions can be reached on the basis of the obtained results:
• Out of the total number of workers engaged in forest utilization, over a period of 5 years, every fourth worker was injured at least once in this period;
• The most commonly injured workers were loggers, despite the fact that FE „Sremska Mitrovica“ provided them with previous training;
• Most of the injuries occurred in March and May, on Mondays, and in the period from 10 to 11 a.m.;
• In the coming period, new evidention forms should be crated and recommendations provided in order to create a database and facilitate the analysis of occupational injuries in forestry in the territory of the PE „Vojvodinašume“ and the whole territory of Serbia in the future period.
Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea, P., E. Tolosana-Esteban, E. Roman-Jordan, 2013: Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review. International Labour Office Geneva, 118 p.
Andreoni, D., 1986: The cost of occupational accidents and diseases, occupational safety and health series, International Labour Office Geneva, No. 54.
Arandelović, M., J. Jovanovic, 2009: Medicina rada, Medicinski fakultet Univerziteta u Nišu, 275.str., Niš
Bell, J. L., S. Gruschecky, 2006: Evaluating the effectiveness of a logger safety training program. Journal of Safety Research, 37: 53-61