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ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2017 str. 35     <-- 35 -->        PDF

consist of small-scale heterogeneous stands (Jakša 2012). Large even-aged stands (several dozen ha) are rare and typically originate from intensive spruce planting after the World War II (Diaci 2006).
Red deer distribution range covers 60% of Slovenia, its local population densities range from minimal (occasional occurrences) to > 20 individuals/km2 (Stergar et al. 2012). In addition to habitat, present-day spatial distribution of red deer is affected by historical factors. In the second half of the 19th century, after the Spring of Nations, red deer was hunted to extinction in Slovenia and in many other parts of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. But soon after, at the turn of the 20th century, it was reintroduced at three sites (Figure 1): Snežnik (S), Karavanke (N) and Pohorje (N-NE; Adamič et al. 2007). From these sites and later also form Hungary (NE) it started to expand and repopulate Slovenia. Even nowadays, more than 100 years after reintroductions, red deer is still spatially expanding (Stergar et al. 2009).
Aside from culling, one of the key red deer management measures is supplemental feeding, whose intensity varies strongly between hunting grounds. At hunting ground level (~ 50 km2) the maximum permitted feeding station density is 1/5 km2 or 1/10 km2, but locally it can reach up to 3/1 km2. Red deer is purposely fed throughout winter, but the same stations can be used for feeding of brown bear and wild boar, extending availability of supplemental food throughout the year. Red deer is typically fed a combination of feed: roughage (hay, grass silage) juicy feed (root crops, fruit), and concentrate fodders (maize, grain; Adamič and Jerina 2011, Jakša 2011).
Preparation of data on local red deer population densities – Priprema podataka o lokalnim gustoćama populacija jelena običnog
Our study is based on data with a relatively fine spatial resolution (1 km2) considering the size of the area (the entire country). Estimates of local red deer population densities for all 1×1 kilometre raster cells in Slovenia were obtained combining two well established methods: pellet group counting (Neff 1968, Campbell et al. 2004) and culling density (Imperio et al. 2010, Ueno et al. 2014). The benefits of both methods were utilised: availability of culling density on large area (whole country) and precision of pellet group counting.
All Slovenian hunting grounds systematically record all culling data of ungulate game species with spatial precision of 1×1 km (Virjent and Jerina 2004). Data on all culls in the period 2006-2011 (30 597 culled animals) was used for the analysis. Cull density in kilometre raster cells was used as the baseline indicator of local population density.