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ŠUMARSKI LIST 5-6/2017 str. 43     <-- 43 -->        PDF

Hook.1000-seed weight was 10.4 and 36.9 g respectively (Bonner, 2008).The average seed length, width, thickness and weight were found 10.07 mm, 3.30 mm, 2.77 mm and 0.045 g, in order.
There were significant differences between the pre-treatments with regard to germination percentages. The seeds without any pre-treatments showed very low germination percentage (6%). But after different pre-treatment’s germination percentage was increased. This showed that J. drupacea seeds have deep dormancy. The applied pre-chilling treatments didn’t entirely eliminate the dormancy. However the seeds for three provenances after 4 weeks warm stratification and subsequently 9 weeks pre-chilling were very effective on the elimination of dormancy and they increased the germination percentage (average 65.3%). Barbour and Carvalho (2009) tried to germinate J. scopulorum Sarg. seeds with 21 different pre-treatment’s. In that study they obtained the best results (55%) with 16 weeks of warm stratification and 13 weeks cold stratification. For the above mentioned treatments they soak the seeds 3 days in water.
Morphological and physiological seed dormancy is well recorded in many woody species: Fraxinus excelsior L. (Suszkaet al., 1996), Carpinus betulus L., Tilia cordata Mill., Juniperus communis L., Cornus mas L. (Gosling, 2007), Taxus chinensis (Pilg.) Rehder var. mairei (Lemée ex H. Lév.) W. C. Cheng et L. K. Fu (Chien et al., 1998) Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb.var. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takht. (Daneshvar, 2015), Prunus campanulata Maxim. (Chien et al., 2002), Viburnum lantana L. (Santiago et al., 2015) etc. To break this dormancy different pre-treatments are necessary, e.g.warm incubation and pre-chilling (Baskin and Baskin, 2004). The best results in our study in terms of mean germination time were achieved with 4 weeks of warm stratification and 9 weeks of pre-chilling.
It is well now that gibberellic acid breaks the dormancy, promotes germination and inhibits ABA effect in germination processes (Bewley and Black, 1994; Kucera et al., 2005). In our study non-pre-chilled seeds that were treated with 100 ppm and 500 ppm GA3showed very low germination percentages. On the other hand, 8 weeks pre-chilled seeds which were subjected to GA3 hormone reached the highest germination percentage (64.3%). Gibberellic acid without any pre-treatments didn’t have a significant effect on the germination of J. drupacea seeds.
J. drupacea is a decorative, evergreen tree with high ornamental potential. Considering that it could be used in parks and gardens as an ornamental species. Furthermore, J. drupacea seedlings should be produced in forest nurseries and used in reforestation programs.
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