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better alternative in terms of ecologic and economic aspects. On the other hand, tractor-trailers were found to be socially efficient technique.
When analyzing road construction techniques, it was found that using bulldozer reduce operation time, while excavator provides better solution in terms of economic and social aspects (Öztürk et al., 2010). The fire damage assessment activities by three groups (i.e. 2, 4, and 8 members) were analyzed and results indicated that damage assessment time was 1.2 days for 10 hectares of forest fire. It was found that the group of 8 members minimized the damage assessment time in both scenarios.
The optimum combination of forest operation techniques and damage assessment methods were determined for three scenarios within two seasons. In the high density season, it was found that total times of optimum combinations were 2666.41, 2544.55, and 742.37 minutes for Scenario I, II, and III, respectively (Table 8). The most time consuming activity was timber extraction for Scenarios I (36.26%) and Scenario II (37.99%). The second time consuming activity was felling for both these scenarios. For Scenario III, felling was the most time consuming activity (39.61%), followed by timber extraction (29.88 %).
In the low density season, it was found that total times of optimum combinations were 3603.28, 3451.83, and 962.28 minutes for Scenario I, II, and III, respectively (Table 9). The most time consuming activity was again timber extraction for Scenarios I (36.26%) and Scenario II (37.99%), and followed by felling for both these scenarios. For Scenario III, felling was the most time consuming activity (39.72%), and again followed by timber extraction (29.97%).
The time spent on removing fire damaged timber was computed by the model for each forest compartment in the study area. Then, these results from the model were compared with time spent on the actual salvage logging operation taken place in high density season in the field (Table 10). The results indicated that using PFAP model capable of reducing total time of salvage logging operation from 1819 days to 720 days. This suggested that the model can save about 1099 days of operation time (60%) in the field. The difference between model and actual operation ranged from 17.99 days (9th compartment) to 75.25 days (3rd compartment). It was also found that using PFAP model potentially provides optimum solutions in terms of both ecological and economic aspects.
4. Conclusions
4. Zaključci
The forest fire is one of the most detrimental natural disasters that damage forest ecosystem, threat human life, and cause important economic losses. Therefore, forest operation activities should be immediately planned and implemented after forest fires to restore and maintain forest ecosystem in burned areas. Planning of post-fire salvage logging operations involve many stages, decision variables, and constraints that require operational planning approach and multi-criteria decision-making process. In this study, a Post-fire Action Planning (PFAP) model was developed to minimize the total time spent on post-fire salvage logging activities. PFAP model is capable of evaluating and planning many work stages of salvage logging operations, while considering ecological, economic, and social constraints. In order to properly manage chaotic circumstances after forest fires and to ensure sustainable management of forest resources at the same time, operational planning based PFAP model assists decision makers for quick and effective planning of salvage logging operations. Besides, this model can be used to assess necessary workforce, forest operation techniques, and financial conditions prior to any forest fires so that limited sources and time can be managed properly for actual fire incidents.   
This study is funded by “The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey” (TUBITAK) with the project number of 1109B331100187 and by “Istanbul University Scientific Research Department” with the project number of 16178.  
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