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ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2018 str. 60     <-- 60 -->        PDF

bicolor R.W. Davidson & D.E. Wells, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math.-Käärik, Ophiostoma piceae (Münch) Syd. & P. Syd., Ophiostoma fuscum Linnak., Z.W. de Beer & M.J. Wingf., Graphium fimbriisporum (M. Morelet) K. Jacobs, Grosmannia cucullata (H. Solheim) Zipfel, Z.W. de Beer & M.J. Wingf., Kirisits & M.J. Wingf., Grosmannia penicillata (Grosmann) Goid., and Grosmannia piceiperda (Rumbold) Goid. In addition to species from the ophiostomatoid group, we found also Penicillium spp. and yeasts.
Fungi isolated from wood – Gljive izolirane iz drva
During the first collection in June 2010, logs had just been colonized by the bark beetles. At that time, the wood was not yet been blue-stained, and ‘predictably’, no ophiostomatoid fungi were found (t=96, P<0.001). During the second collection period, blue staining was present in the sapwood. The average discoloration depth was 19.3 mm.
The following eight ophiostomatoid fungi, including their imperfect states, were collected from wood: E. polonica, C. minuta, O. bicolor, O. brunneo-ciliatum, O. fuscum, O. piceae, G. piceiperda, G. penicillata, as well as Penicillium spp. and yeasts.
The species G. penicillata was present in 44% of sapwood circle sections and was obtained from 25% of sapwood pieces, representing the most commonly found fungi. It was followed by O. bicolor and O. brunneo-ciliatum species that were found in almost 14% of all sapwood pieces. The species O. brunneo-ciliatum was present in 77% of all circle sections and O. bicolor was found in 56%. The species E. polonica was found on 33% of sapwood circle sections and 11% of all sapwood pieces.
With increase in depth, the number of fungi species decreased. Only the species G. penicillata and E. polonica penetrated deeper than 15 mm into the sapwood, and we observ­ed differences in ophiostomatoid fungi species richness over the depth of penetration (χ2=21.03, df=7, p<0.01) (Fig. 1).
More fungal species were observed in the higher parts of the tree (6 and 15 meters) compared to lower part of the tree (0.5 m) (χ2=14.22, df=2, p<0.01). There were very few fungi detected at the lowest sampling height, namely just O. bicolor and O. brunneo-ciliatum.
Fungi isolated from bark beetles – Gljive izolirane iz potkornjaka
On adult beetles, 10 ophiostomatoid fungal species were found, in contrast to pupae and larvae where 7 and 6 ophiostomatoid fungal species, respectively, were found (Table 1). We did not find differences in ophiostomatoid fungi species richness between the first and second collection times on bark beetles (U = 3694, P = 0.47). However, we did find differences in ophiostomatoid fungi assemblages on bark beetles (F=10.8, p<0.001, R2=0.076) between the sampling periods.
The most common species was O. brunneo-ciliatum, it was followed by the species C. minuta, O. bicolor and G. piceiperda (Table 1). Fungi isolated from pupae and larvae were also dominated by the species O. brunneo-ciliatum. The species E. polonica was not isolated from either the pupae or the larvae (Table 1).
Comparisons of ophiostomatoid fungi isolated from different I. amitinus life stages and wood – Usporedbe vrsta ofiostomatoidnih gljiva izoliranih iz različitih razvojnih faza I. amitinus i drveta
Isolation of ophiostomatoid fungi was most successful from adult beetles. We did find differences between ophiostomatoid fungi assemblages (Fig. 2) on bark beetles compared with wood (χ2=2.42, df=3, p<0.01).
There was a slight difference in ophiostomatoid fungi species richness between the beetle life stages and wood. In wood, nine ophiostomatoid fungal species were found; whereas 8 were found on pupae and larvae and 11 fungal species were found on adult beetles (χ2=9.87, df=3, p<0.05).