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ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2018 str. 79     <-- 79 -->        PDF

forest roads into account, the network density is 10.6 m/ha, while in Austria it is as high as 45 m/ha (Ghaffarian & Stampfer, 2007). When we talk about the network of truck roads in Serbia, there are still no precise data on their quantitative and qualitative status (Danilović & Stojnić, 2014). The road network density in Bulgaria is 7.90 m/ha (Stoilov et al. 2014), and in Romania 13.73 m/ha (Bereziuc et al. 2014). In Czech Republic it amounts to 18.0 m/ha (Žáček & Klč, 2008), 10.1 m/ha in Ukraine (without public roads 7.8 m/ha) (Styranivsky et al. 2011), and in Slovakia it reaches 20.1 m/ha (Ambrušová et al. 2013).
Despite significant investment in the construction of primary forest traffic infrastructure in recent years, the density of the network in the Republic of Srpska is still not at a satisfactory level. In the past 11 years in the area of forests owned by the Republic of Srpska almost 519 km of truck roads and about 47.20 km per year were built. However, in addition to an underdeveloped network of truck roads, a major drawback is also the relatively low quality of the network of truck roads, and uneven density of the road network by forest regions. The dynamics of the construction of truck roads for a ten-year management period is envisaged in planning documents for all forest management areas, but looking at the results, it can be concluded that not everyone adhered to the dynamics of road construction, while in the forest region Doboj - Derventa, Trnovo, Lopare and Milići areas, forest truck roads have not been built at all.
Figure 11 shows the average openness of forest management units. It can be observed that higher openness can be found in forest management areas with high quality forests and those belonging to the hilly - mountainous belt. The top open areas are: 20 – petrovačko; 4 – dobojsko-derventsko; 25 – milićko and 24 - istočnodrvarsko. These are mostly hilly and mountain regions dominated by high forests with natural regeneration. The least opened areas are: 15 - posavsko, 14 - nevesinjsko - gatačko, 9 - kalinovičko and 12 – majevičko. The areas with a large share of high forests have higher openness, because the costs of forest road construction can be compensated by wood assortment production. Areas without a significant share of high forests have extremely low openness.
Based on data from the field and the processing of data collected from over 843,000.00 hectares in 26 forest management units which belong to different relief areas and over 9,450.00 kilometers of forest roads and public roads recorded, the density of forest road network of 9.28 m/ha was found in forests managed by the Public Enterprise „Šume Republike Srpske”, while in public roads it amounted to 11.21 m/ha. The newly built roads increased the density of primary forest traffic infrastructure by 0.62 m/ha. With this dynamics of construction, minimum openness would be achieved in 60 years including public roads, while minimum openness for primary forest truck roads would be achieved in 100 years. Only one forest area can be considered minimally open, representing about 1.48% of the total area of state forests in the Republic of Srpska. It is important to intensify the construction of primary forest road trucks, and especially focus on forest areas with almost no construction. The lack of financial resources and poor quality of forests in some forest management units result in inadequate openness. It is also necessary to carry out a more detailed analysis of specific impact factors for this area in order to determine the optimum. It is necessary that planning documents or specific studies elaborate on all the factors affecting forest openness, in order to achieve the optimum density of the forest road network for different relief conditions.
The data on the density of forest road network in the Republic of Srpska represent an exceptional value, obtained from the recording of the current state of the forest road network and systematization of the data collected, which represents the first study of this type in such a wide area. A completed inventory of forest roads represents the basis for developing strategies and plans for further development of the forest road network in the Republic of Srpska.
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