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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2018 str. 57     <-- 57 -->        PDF

3.3. Enhancement of biosphere, social functions and preservation of traditional values of forests – Povećanje opće korisnih funkcija i očuvanje tradicijske vrijednosti šuma
NNTS can provide a variety of non-wood forest products and services to society (Table 2). Example of non-wood forest functions provided by NNTS in Croatia is black locust. Their exotic appearance, lack of serious natural enemies in the artificial range, fast growth and high production of nectar made these species commonly used for firewood, erosion control, amelioration and reclamation of disturbed sites, as well as for honey production, animal forage and as an ornamental tree (Cierjacks et al. 2013). Furthermore, some NNTS play an important economic role in Europe, a potential which is not by far reached in Croatia yet. Also, the use of biomass from SRC can reduce greenhouse gas emissions as a consequence of reduced fossil fuel inputs and increased carbon sequestration (Aylott et al. 2008). The study aimed to compare the benefits for carbon (C) sequestration of afforestation with a multifunctional oak–beech forest vs. a poplar SRC showed that coppice forest reduces emissions with 24.3-29.3 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 while the mixed forest reduces with only 6.2-7.1 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (Deckmyn et al. 2004). Even though non-native poplars are used in Croatia, their use is limited to certain specific areas neglecting other potential uses than wood production (e.g. phytoremediation). In addition, the public perception of NNTS in Croatia is often negative and the area and cultural significance of some NNTS is neglected. An example of NNTS, which besides good wood production has a great social and historical value is a 120-years old Douglas-fir stand in Zelendvor (Management unit „Krči”).
Following climate and silviculture management scenarios, NNTS may be an interesting and important option for Croatian forestry in the next decades providing numerous opportunities compared with to NTS. The overview of introduction and use of NNTS in Croatia as a case study shows that in spite of good growth and yield results and vitality of some NNT species, a large gap lays between their introduction and active use in management practice. While one can find ample examples of NNTS introduction both in Europe and in Croatia (mostly in trials), the effective use of NNTS is rare and complex. The need for changing public perception and to disseminate the knowledge on NNTS to decision makers, harmonisation of production of NNTS seedlings with the needs and the potential of NNTS use in forestry practice and change of legislation underline basic problems for the active use of NNTS. We strongly propose that decisions upon NNTS should be based on comparisons between NNTS and NTS both in further research activities and in practical forestry. Thus, integrated and site-specific management is a strategy, which seems to be an appropriate approach for guidelines for the introduction and management of NNTS in Croatia. Tolerated and actively used in selected areas, but strictly eradicated in others (e.g. valuable sites) is considered to be the best option.
We would like to thank the Management Committee of COST Action FP 1403 Non-native tree species for European forests - experiences, risks and opportunities (NNEXT) for providing the opportunity and finances to initiate this research and to acknowledge possibilities of NNTS in Croatian forestry through discussions in the scope of Training school. Especially, we thank other colleagues who were involved in the 1st NNEXT Training school and contributed to discussions: Andrić Ivan, PhD, Cosović Marija, MSc, Cvjetković Branislav, MSc, Eberhardt Benno Richard, MSc, Avramidou Evangelia V., PhD, Kacprzyk Magdalena, PhD, Kišek Mateja, MSc, Krajnc Luka, MSc, Lakićević Milena, PhD, Rousselle Yves, PhD, Stojnić Srdjan, PhD and Szymanski Norbert, MSc.
Aylott, M. J., E. Casella, I. Tubby, N. R. Street, P. Smith, G. Taylor, 2008: Yield and spatial supply of bioenergy poplar and willow short-rotation coppice in the UK. New Phytol, 178: 358 – 370.
Bengtsson, J., S. G. Nilsson, A. Franc, P. Menozzi, 2000: Biodiversity, disturbances, ecosystem function and management of European forests. Forest Ecol Manag, 132 (1): 39 – 50.
Borzan, Ž., D. Kremer, E. Stabentheiner, 2006: Micromorphological traits of north American ash species introduced in Croatia. Glas Šum Pokuse. Posebno izd. (0352-6895) 5 (2006): 225 – 234.
Bušina, F., 2007: Natural regeneration of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) in forest stands of Hůrky Training Forest District, Higher Forestry School and Secondary Forestry School in Písek. J For Sci, 53 (1): 20 – 34.
Cierjacks, A., I. Kowarik, J. Joshi, S. Hempel, M. Ristow, M. Lippe, E. Weber, 2013: Biological flora of the British Isles: Robinia pseudoacacia. J Ecol 101 (6): 1623–1640.
Croatian Forests Ltd., 2006: National Forest Management Plan 2006 – 2015. Approved by the Ministry of agriculture, Zagreb.
Croatian Forests Ltd., 2016: National Forest Management Plan 2016 – 2025. Approved by the Ministry of agriculture, Zagreb.
Deckmyn, G., B. Muys, J. Garcia Quijano, R. Ceulemans, 2004: Carbon sequestration following afforestation of agricultural soils: comparing oak/beech forest to short-rotation poplar coppice combining a process and a carbon accounting model. Glob Change Biol 10: 1482 – 1491.