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ŠUMARSKI LIST 9-10/2018 str. 32     <-- 32 -->        PDF

and F. tularensis subsp. holartica (Type B) (Kingry and Petersen, 2014; Kuehn et al., 2013).They differ in biochemical characteristics, virulence, ecology, epidemiology, as well as geographic distribution (Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova, 1983; Staples et al., 2006). Type A strainoccurs mostly in humans and animals in North America (Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova, 1983;Keim et al., 2007). Type B strain is found all over the northern hemisphere, causing diseasemainly on European continent.Type B strain is further divided into four main genetic clades including B.4, B.6, B.12 and B.16.(Kuehn et al., 2013)and it is less pathogenic for humans than Type A strains (Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova, 1983;Keim et al., 2007).Infection can be acquired through the skin (bite of an infected vector or direct contact with infected animals), by inhalation of infective agent or by ingestion of contaminated water or food(Kingry and Petersen, 2014).Route of bacterial entry into organism determinates the final clinical outcome of disease in humans, which are: ulceroglandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal, gastrointestinal or pneumonic tularemia (Kingry and Petersen, 2014;Maurin and Gyuranecz, 2016; Oyston, 2008; Ellis et al., 2002).
Little is known about ecology of Francisella species, and no animal reservoir has been identified yet. Two main lifecycles, aquatic and terrestrial, are of epidemiological importance for F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in Europe. The aquatic cycle is present more in south part of Europe including Bulgaria, Kosovo and Turkey, but has been reported in Sweden and Finland as well. Humans are infected through water contaminated with animal excrement.The terrestrial cycle involves small animals and vectors and predominates in countries of Western and Central Europe: Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Switzerland, Slovakia and Czech Republic(Maurin and Gyuranecz, 2016;Morner, 1992).Rodents, such as meadow voles, water voles, common voles, mice, ground squirrels, beavers, muskrats and lagomorphs like rabbits and hares, in both, terrestrial and aquatic system are supposed to be involved in maintenance