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ŠUMARSKI LIST 3-4/2019 str. 67     <-- 67 -->        PDF

Growth elements of the trees and the stand of Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch at Fruška gora (Serbia)
Elementi rasta stabala i sastojine Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch na Fruškoj gori (Srbija)
Martin Bobinac, Siniša Andrašev, Andrijana Bauer-Živković, Nikola Šušić
The species Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch has been present in the territory of Serbia for over 150 years, and is most commonly cultivated in the form of decorative single trees or in small groups. The largest heterogeneous group of trees is situated at Fruška Gora on the site of pedunculate oak and hornbeam. The growth elements of trees and the group (stand) are presented in this paper. The spacing between the trees in the stand was 3 × 3 . The growth elements of the trees and the stand are shown for 75, 80 and 85 years of culture ages, for all trees and collectives of trees that were developed under the influence of different growing space. The productivity of the stand is high. At the age of 85 years, 502 trees per hectare were determined with quadratic mean diameter (dg) of 39.6 cm, dominant diameter (D100) 51.5 cm, Lorey’s mean height (hL) 33.0 m, dominant height (H100) 35.0 m, basal area 61.74 m2·ha–1 and volume of 918.23 m3·ha–1.
Key words: Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch, introduction, culture, growth elements, growing conditions, Serbia
The genus Gymnocladus (Fabaceae=Leguminosae) consists of five species (Roskov et al., 2005). One species (G. dioicus (L.) K. Koch) is endemic in the eastern part of north America, and four species (G. angustifolius (Gagnep.) J.E. Vidal, G. chinensis Baill., G. assamicus Kanjilal ex P.C. Kanjilal i G. burmanicus Parkinson) are endemic in eastern Asia (Lee, 1976). In Europe, G. dioicus is a widespread tree species in parks and avenues (2018). The Kentucky coffeetree is native to North America with a range that includes southern Ontario, then east to central New York, southwestward to Oklahoma, and north to southern Minnesota (Harlow et al., 1996). The trees grow up to about 30 m in height and up to about 1.2 m in diameter (Werthner et al., 1935). According to Petrović (1951), in the area of Lake Michigan and Huron it grows up to 33 m in height and up to 100 cm in diameter and in old growth forests it branches close to the ground. In nature, it builds communities with many tree species and some of the most important associates of the Kentucky coffeetree are Juglans nigra L., Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Quercus rubra L., Acer saccharum Marsh. (McClain and Jackson, 1980). The root system is deep, widespreading, the tree is considered to be wind-firm (Van Dersal, 1938). The species has the ability to withstand very low temperatures up to –34 °C (Elias, 1980). The wood has a wide use and the seeds were used as a coffee substitute so the tree got its name ’’coffeetree’’ (Alden, 1995). Although