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ŠUMARSKI LIST 5-6/2019 str. 52     <-- 52 -->        PDF

332 m2/ha, respectively. Accordingly, the amount of sheet erosion that occurred on the skid trails in the compartments as a result of extraction operations was found to be 4186.52 g ha-1 year-1. In their study, Sidle et al. (2004) estimated the amount of sheet erosion on the skid trails as 272 ± 20 tons ha-1 year-1 as a result of the compartment extraction process. Gumus and Turk (2016) found 134009 tons / ha of land loss in the skid trails over a long-term period. The values varied according to the type of stand, the precipitation and the use of the trail. Gürtan (1975), Yıldırım (1989) and Tomasic (1996) reported that forest land could be damaged during logging extractions, especially in sloping areas. They emphasized that these losses are generally in the form of erosion-susceptible channels and forest land destruction and develop directly in proportion to loss of vegetation cover, slope, transport activity and amount of rainfall. Görcelioğlu (2004) stated that, in the planning of skid trails, factors that must be considered are that the trails lead to erosion and that the machines forming the wheel tracks in the ground cause compression and erosion in the stands. Turk and Yıldız (2018) in their study used slash with wood chips to repair the loss of inorganic plant nutrients in skid trails and results showed that cations and anions were 1.11‒4.5 times higher in the wood chips plots and 1.08‒3.46 times higher in the slash plots than in comparable control plots. It was determined that soil erosion had been reduced and some inorganic plant nutrients had been reestablished, and thus, by spreading logging residues on it, the skid trail soil had been restored. Agherkakli et al. (2014) studied to quantify potentially mitigating effects of slash cover on soil compaction and rutting on skid trails. In the study; compared to bare soils, soil bulk density was not significantly reduced by light slash density; however, soil bulk density was significantly reduced (16%) by heavy slash up to five machine passes on steep slopes. Besides, light and heavy slash significantly reduced rut depth (nearly double) in both slope classes (downhill <20% - >20%).
Plot comparison results
Rezultati usporedbe ploha
According to the results of a total of 108 water samples taken to determine the soil loss from the plots in the test sites, the average amount of soil loss was measured as 2.58 g m-2 in the control plots, 2.13 g m-2 in the slash plots and 1.61 g m-2 in the wood chips plots. In other words, it was determined that the soil loss in the control plots was about 1.2 times higher than that in the slash plots and 1.6 times higher than that in the wood chips plots. In this study, in order to reduce the sheet erosion on skid trails, wood chips application was shown to be better than slash. According to the results of variance analysis on sediment amounts, a statistically significant difference was found between the suspended sediment quantities transported in the plots (P <0.05). Suspended