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Although at first glance various research (Gallé et al., 2007; Gallé and Feller, 2007; Haldimann et al., 2008; Arend et al., 2013; Arend et al., 2016) indicated slightly opposite results on the recovery of the forest tree species after stress, deeper analysis of the both obtained and quoted results show similarities and concordance. Arend et al. (2013) showed that the drought affected the physiological processes and their recovery in Q. robur to a greater extent than in Q.petreae and Q. pubescens. Net photosynthesis and chlorophyll content were strongly affected by drought, and the recovery period was prolonged. Comparing our results with aforementioned research, it can be suggested that the 7-day recovery period was not sufficient for oaks to restore their physiological processes to optimum. In most cases, recovery period can vary upon the origin of the seedlings where provenances from xeric sites had shorter recovery period (Arend et al., 2016), or in some cases, atmospheric conditions such as elevated CO2 can accelerate recovery of the photosynthesis (Gallé et al., 2007). Sometimes even when the net photosynthesis recovers fully, the recovery of the entire photosynthetic process can be prolonged due to the disturbance in stomatal performance (Gallé and Feller, 2007).
Obtained results showed significant decrease of net photosynthesis of investigated oak families under the simultaneous effect of drought stress and/or attack by caterpillars. However, NRA did not decrease under stress in both families. Recovery period did not increase net photosynthesis in plants but showed differences in limitation (stomatal/metabolic) between families. On the other hand, nitrate reductase activity was increased in stressed plants of both oak families indicating beginning of recovery. Based on comparison of the recovery measurements data and existing literature it can be concluded that the 7-day recovery was insufficient for oak seedlings to fully restore their optimal physiological processes. Analysis of data also showed that there is a significant genetic effect in relation to the families’ response to induced stress and recovery, indicating the possibility to use physiological parameters in the selection of stress-tolerant oak progenies and provenances.
This study was financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project No: 451-03-68/2020-14/ 200197). We would like to thank Mr Ed Bauer and Dr Ron Zalesny from the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Institute for Applied Ecosystem Studies, Rhinelander, WI USA for English and style editing.
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